Tuesday, 5 November 2013

Healthy Foods - Potatoes (Solanum)'

Potato is a genus Solanum, belong to the family Solanaceae. It is good source of protein and according to the statistic, the annual diet of an average global citizen is about 33 kg (72.6 Lbs) of potato. It now is growth world wide in suitable climate for commercial profits and health benefits, thus its consumption is extremely variable and rapidly changing.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. fat
4. Dietary fiber
5. Vitamin B1
6. Vitamin B2
7. Vitamin B3
8. Vitamin B6
9. Calcium
10. Iron
11. Magnesium
12. Potassium
13. Phosphorus
14. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Human health
In the investigation of potato nutritional composition and its effect in human health
found that Many compounds in potatoes contribute to antioxidant activity and interest in cultivars with pigmented flesh is growing. This review will examine the nutrient and bioactive compounds in potatoes and their impact on human health, according to "Potatoes and human health" by Camire ME, Kubow S, Donnelly DJ.(a)

2. Anti microbial effects
In the analyzing potato plants synthesize phenolic compounds and its against bruising and injury from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects, found that the highest amounts were present in red and purple potatoes. Home processing of pulp with various forms of heat induced reductions in the phenolic content. The described methodology should facilitate future studies on the role of potato phenolic compounds in the plant and the diet, according to "Analysis of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in potato plant flowers, leaves, stems, and tubers and in home-processed potatoes" by Im HW, Suh BS, Lee SU, Kozukue N, Ohnisi-Kameyama M, Levin CE, Friedman M.(b)

2. Antioxidants
In the assessment of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective and their antioxidant effects found concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively, according to "Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin" by Andre CM, Oufir M, Guignard C, Hoffmann L, Hausman JF, Evers D, Larondelle Y.(c)

4. Inflammatory bowel disease
In the examination of high glycoalkaloids of fried potato skins and its effects on intestinal inflammation using two different animal models of IBD found that consumption of potato skins containing glycoalkaloids can significantly aggravate intestinal inflammation in predisposed individuals, according to "Naturally occurring glycoalkaloids in potatoes aggravate intestinal inflammation in two mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease" by
Iablokov V, Sydora BC, Foshaug R, Meddings J, Driedger D, Churchill T, Fedorak RN.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(1)

2. Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Memory Improvements
In the investigation of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and Memory Improvements found that multivitamin improved speed of response on a measure of spatial working memory, according to "Memory improvements in elderly women following 16 weeks treatment with a combined multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement : A randomized controlled trial" by Macpherson H, Ellis KA, Sali A, Pipingas A.(2)

b. Anti cancer effects
In the observation of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) and its anti cancer effects found that vitamin B6 is involved in the methyl donor cycle ant thus, some of the antitumor properties of vitamin B6 may involve an indirect effect on the level of DNA or histone methylation. according to "Vitamin B6 and cancer: from clinical data to molecularly mechanisms" by Sujol G, Docquier A, Boulahtouf A, Castet-Nicolas A, Cavaillès V.(3)

3. Potassium
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

4. Tryptophan
Tryptophan beside is the precosur of serotonin as it is famous in inducing sleep if it taken in high dose,according to the study of "Improving the quality of infant sleep through the inclusion at supper of cereals enriched with tryptophan, adenosine-5'-phosphate, and uridine-5'-phosphate" by Cubero J, Chanclón B, Sánchez S, Rivero M, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C.(4), it also enhances the neural responses cayused by depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(5)

5. Etc.
C. Other health benefits
1. Weight Gain
Since potato contains very little protein but high amount of carbohydrate, it is one of ideal food for people want to gain weight, according to the article of "Weight gain and potatoes" by Allison (dreamlesssleep) wrote in cheapvegan(http://cheapvegan.livejournal.com/925367.html), Allison wrote that Weight gain foods/recommendations anyone? I'm pretty sure I'm near to hitting underweight for my height and I just haven't been feeling in the mood to stuff myself or anything. So I need some high calorie recommendations.

2. Anti -inflammation and infection
Potato is very effective in preventing inflammation, internal or external, due to high amount of vitamin C that helps to enhance the immune function fighting against irregular cells growth cause of inflammation and bacteria causes of infection, according to the article of "Boost Your Immune System with Vitamin C" By Sylvia Anderson, IH Editor, Published: October 05, 2009 in the Insider Health (http://www.insidershealth.com/community/contributor/sylvia_anderson/2)

3. Antiaging
High amount of antioxidant in potato promotes the immune system in preventing and scavenging the forming of free radical cause of age spot or free radical causes of early aging, according to the study of "An ex vivo biochemical model to study the antioxidant clinical properties of cosmetic products in human antiaging skin care" by Calabrese V, Randazzo SD, Morganti PG, Rizza V., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10337504)

4. Scurvy
Vitamin-C present in potatoes beside prevents the breaking off capillaries wall by keeping the wall elastic, it also can help to prevent this dreaded deficiency disease, due to vitamin-C deficiency such as cracked lip corners, spongy and bleeding gum, etc., according to the study of "Scurvy: a disease almost forgotten" by Olmedo JM, Yiannias JA, Windgassen EB, Gornet MK., posted in Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16911372), reaserachers wrote that Taking a thorough dietary history and measuring serum ascorbic acid levels should be considered for patients with classic signs and symptoms, nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints, or other vitamin or mineral deficiencies.

5. Insulin Sensitive
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it helps the digestive system in carbohydrate metabolism by releasing glucose slowly, thus reducing the risk of stress to pancreas in secreting insulin, leading insulin sensitive, causing type II diabetes., according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F., posted in Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332).

6. Etc.

Side effect
1. Green potato and potato leaf and fruit is poisonous and so are potato leaves and fruits if overdose, as they contain alkaloids.
2. Anecdotal
It can elevate the symptoms of arthritis.
3. Acrylamide
It can be toxic and cause cancers.

(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19960391
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386928
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044831
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20198430

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22006207
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001823
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19925721
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268

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