Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy Foods - Mushroom

Mushroom is a standard name of white button mushroom, the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source, It is a genus A. Muscaria and belong to the family Amanitaceae and has been cultivation in many cultures all over the world for foods and health benefits.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Protein
3. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
4. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
5. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
6. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
7. Calcium
8. Phosphorus
9. Potassium
10. Sodium
11. Selenium
12. Iron
13. Copper
14. Zinc
15. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
Breast cancer cell
In the investigation of
the flavones and isoflavones of white button mushroom (species Agaricus bisporus) and theirs anti breast cancer effect found that Phytochemicals in the mushroom aqueous extract inhibited aromatase activity and proliferation of MCF-7aro cells. These results suggest that diets high in mushrooms may modulate the aromatase activity and function in chemoprevention in postmenopausal women by reducing the in situ production of estrogen, according to "White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation' by Grube BJ, Eng ET, Kao YC, Kwon A, Chen S.(a)

2. Prostate cancer
In the evaluation of white
button mushrooms and its phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention found that the data provided by this study illustrate the anticancer potential of phytochemicals in mushroom extract both in vitro and in vivo and supports the recommendation of white button mushroom as a dietary component that may aid in the prevention of prostate cancer in men, according to "White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties and inhibits prostate tumor growth in athymic mice" by Adams LS, Phung S, Wu X, Ki L, Chen S(b)

Immunologic effects
In the analyzing White button mushrooms (WBM) and its effect in immune response, found that WBM promote DC maturation and enhance their antigen-presenting function. This effect may have potential in enhancing both innate and T cell-mediated immunity leading to a more efficient surveillance and defense mechanism against microbial invasion and tumor development, according to "White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice" by Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D.(c)

Hepatic Steatosis
In the examination of
white button mushrooms and its effect in liver found that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by White button mushrooms (WBM) extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women, according to "Protective Effects of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Mice as a Model of Postmenopausal Women" by Kanaya N, Kubo M, Liu Z, Chu P, Wang C, Chen YC.(d)

In the demonstration of
white button mushrooms (WBM) and and shiitake mushrooms (SM) and their effect on Arthritis found that both types of mushrooms reduced plasma TNFα (34%, WBM; 64%, SM), only SM increased plasma IL-6 by 1.3-fold (P < 0.05). The CIA index was positively correlated with sICAM1 (r = 0.55; P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with TNFα (r = 0.34; P < 0.05). Whether mushrooms are beneficial for arthritis management remains to be investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a possible health benefit of WBM in arthritis treatment, according to "White button and shiitake mushrooms reduce the incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in dilute brown non-agouti mice" by Chandra L, Alexander H, Traoré D, Lucas EA, Clarke SL, Smith BJ, Lightfoot SA, Kuvibidila S.(e)
6. Etc.
B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Selenium
a. In the investigation of genistin and selenium and their effect in breast cancer found that Supplementation of genistin alone or with selenium provided antioxidant defense with high-potential chemopreventive activity against DMBA-induced mammary tumors more than selenium alone, according to "Prevention of rat breast cancer by genistin and selenium" by Hamdy SM, Latif AK, Drees EA, Soliman SM.(1)

b. Prostate cancer
selenium also helps to reduce the risk of oxidation due to forming of free radicals and enhances the immune system to prevent the irregular cells growth of cancer, including prostate cancer, according to the study of "Efficacy of antioxidant vitamins and selenium supplement in prostate cancer prevention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" by Liang L, Yang KH, Tian JH, Guan QL, Yao N, Cao N, Mi DH, Wu J, Ma B, Yang SH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20661819).

2. Vitamin B12
In the investigation of vitamin B12 and its effect on

a. Retinal hemorrhages
found that
the loss of impermeability allows extrusion of whole blood and subsequent diffusion from the disrupted site throughout and above the nerve fiber layer. Therefore the biomicroscopic pattern of white centered hemorrhages observed in anemic retinopathy is most likely due to the clot formation as the reparative sequence after capillary rupture., according to "White centered retinal hemorrhages in vitamin b(12) deficiency anemia" by Zehetner C, Bechrakis NE.(2)

Neurotrophic action
Found that
the neurotrophic action of cobalamin (Cbl) in the central nervous system (CNS) of totally gastrectomized (TGX) rats is mediated by stimulation of the epidermal growth factor(EGF) synthesis in the CNS itself. It thus appears that Cbl inversely regulates the expression of EGF and TNF-alpha genes in the CNS of TGX rats, according to "Epidermal growth factor as a local mediator of the neurotrophic action of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) in the rat central nervous system" by Scalabrino G, Nicolini G, Buccellato FR, Peracchi M, Tredici G, Manfridi A, Pravettoni G.(3)

Copper is best known for its function in regulating the proper growth, utilization of iron, it is also a strong antioxidant, aiding the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, and preventing oxidation in the cell membrane, according to the article of antioxidant cancer and diseases, posted in Medical Advisor Journals, in other antioxidants, 1. Copper

4. Vitamin B3
In the evaluation of vitamin B3 and its effect on
hyperpigmentation found that Niacinamide induces a decrease in pigmentation, inflammatory infiltrate, and solar elastosis. Niacinamide is a safe and effective therapeutic agent for this condition, according to "Natural options for the management of hyperpigmentation" by Leyden JJ, Shergill B, Micali G, Downie J, Wallo W.(4)

5. Vitamin B5
In the study of
PEDYPHAR ointment (a new ointment prepared from natural royal jelly and panthenol in an ointment base) its effect on diabetic ulceration found that Ninety-six per cent of the patients in groups 1 and 2 responded well, with a complete cure, defined as'complete closure of the ulcer without signs of underlying bone infection' by the end of week 9 and for the duration of the six-month follow-up period. All of the ulcers in group 1 healed, as did 92% of those in group 2. All patients in group 3 healed following surgical excision, debridement of necrotic tissue and conservative treatment with PEDYPHAR ointment, according to "Safety and efficacy of a new honey ointment on diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective pilot study" by Abdelatif M, Yakoot M, Etmaan M.(5)

6. Etc.
C. Others health Benefits
1. Cholesterol Levels
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it not only helps to bind the bad cholesterol (LDL) in the digestive track then expelling them through normal waste release, but also burns cholesterol when they are digested because of its high lean protein content., according to the study of "Fiber intake, serum cholesterol levels, and cardiovascular disease in European individuals with type 1 diabetes. EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group" by Toeller M, Buyken AE, Heitkamp G, de Pergola G, Giorgino F, Fuller JH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10097895)

2. Immune system
Since it contain high amount of vitamin C, it not only helps to improve the immune system in fighting against the foreign invasion, such as virus and bacteria, but also helps to inhibits fatty acid synthase expression as a result of the presence linoleic acid, thus reducing the risk of tumors and breast, colon and prostate cancers, according to the study of "The 10t,12c isomer of conjugated linoleic acid inhibits fatty acid synthase expression and enzyme activity in human breast, colon, and prostate cancer cells" by Lau DS, Archer MC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043266)

3. Prostate health
With the presence of zinc in the mushroom, it helps to improve the prostate in performing its function of secreting semen and assisting testes in producing the normal sperm, according to the study of "Zinc status of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma" byChristudoss P, Selvakumar R, Fleming JJ, Gopalakrishnan G., posted in PubMed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21716879), researchers found that BPH or prostate carcinoma may be associated with a reduction in the levels of tissue zinc, plasma zinc, and an increase in urine zinc/creatinine

4. Diabetes
The high concentration of dietary fiber not helps to prevent constipation by binding to the harden waste in the large intestine but also releases the glucose into the blood stream slowly, thus decreasing the pancreas stress in production of insulin as it is needed to convert glucose to energy, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713332)

5. Etc.

Side effects
1. Some mushroom are Poisson, if they are eaten by mistake
2. allergens
It may cause allergic effect to certain people.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11739882
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19005974
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18287364
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22046322
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22089659
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087102
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10544191
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21623927
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18376651

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