Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy Foods - Leeks (Allium)

Leek is a genius of Allium, belong to the vegetable family vegetable Alliacaea, same as onion and garlic. Leeks are easy to grow from seed and usually reach maturity in the autumn months, and have few pest or disease problems.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2.Dietary fiber
3. Protein
4. Fat
5. Vitamin A
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Vitamin B6
10. Folate (Vitamin B9)
11. Vitamin B12
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin E
14. Vitamin K
15. Calcium
16. Iron
16. Manganese
17. Magnesium
18. Phosphorus
19. Potassium
20. Sodium
21. Zinc
22. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Endometrial cancer
In the investigation of allium vegetables anf their effect on endometrial cancer found that the OR of endometrial cancer for successive categories of onion intake were 0.94 (95% CI 0.72, 1.21) for <2 portions/week and 0.40 (95% CI 0.22, 0.72) for > or =2 portions/week, with a significant inverse trend in risk (P = 0.01). The OR for an increment of one portion (i.e. 80 g) of onions per week was 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.95). For garlic, the OR for successive categories of intake were 0.89 (95% CI 0.68, 1.15) for intermediate use and 0.62 (95% CI 0.42, 0.92) for high use, with a significant inverse trend in risk (P = 0.02), according to "Allium vegetables intake and endometrial cancer risk" by Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Dal Maso L, Negri E, Montella M, Zucchetto A, Talamini R, La Vecchia C.(a)

2. Anti cancers
In the evaluation of organosulfur compounds of Allium vegetables and its anticancer effects found that antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds are thus possible cancer-preventive agent, according to "Allium vegetables and organosulfur compounds: do they help prevent cancer?" by Bianchini F, Vainio H.(b)

3. Antioxidant activities
In the investigation of the methanol extract of dried skin of Allium cepa and its isolation of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside [1] found that the antioxidant activity of 1 was evaluated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay; it showed 3.04 micromol Trolox equivalents/mmol. 1 was shown to be a promising ingredient that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation and for protecting against oxidative stress, according to "Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory and antioxidant activities of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Allium cepa" by Arung ET, Furuta S, Ishikawa H, Tanaka H, Shimizu K, Kondo R.(c)

4. Cholesterol
In the comparison to the hypolipidemic drug gugulipid and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCS) isolated from Allium cepa Linn (family: Liliaceae) and its effect in cholesterol found that both gugulipid and SMCS cause reduction of endogenous lipogenesis, increase catabolism of lipids and subsequent excretion of metabolic by-products through the intestinal tract. However, gugulipid is a better drug than SMCS at a low dose of 50mg/kg body weight, according to "Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats' by
Kumari K, Augusti KT.(d)

5. Etc

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin K
Since leak contains a measure amount of vitamin K, it helps to protect against aging diseases and the under layers of the skin, thus reducing the risk of wrinkle due to aging and enhances the absorption of calcium, thus promoting the formation of healthy bones, according to the study of "Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing" by Vermeer C, Theuwissen E., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21427421), researchers found that According to the triage theory, long-term vitamin K inadequacy is an independent, but modifiable risk factor for the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis.

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(2)

3. Manganese
Manganese in dried peas not only is a processor for the metabolizing of glucose and carbohydrates, it also plays an important role as part of the natural antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), that helps to fight the damage caused by free radicals, according to the study of "Regulation of Manganese Antioxidants by Nutrient Sensing Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae" by Reddi AR, Culotta VC., posted in PubMed, researchers found that loss of either of these upstream kinase sensors dramatically inhibited the potency of Mn as an antioxidant. Downstream of Rim15p are transcription factors Gis1p and the redundant Msn2/Msn4p pair that typically respond to nutrient and stress signals. Both transcription factors were found to modulate the potency of the Mn-antioxidant but in opposing fashions: loss of Gis1p was seen to enhance Mn-antioxidant activity whereas loss of Msn2/4p greatly suppressed it. Our observed roles for nutrient and stress response kinases and transcription factors in regulating the Mn-antioxidant underscore its physiological importance in aerobic fitness.

4. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(3)

4. Folate
Beside it is essential vitamin in synthesis of DNA (According to the study of "Folate stimulation of wound DNA synthesis" by Zhang XJ, Chinkes DL, Herndon DN., Posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028951)), amino acid metabolism (accprding to the study of "Assessment of vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin B-6 status and relation to sulfur amino acid metabolism in neonates" Minet JC, Bissé E, Aebischer CP, Beil A, Wieland H, Lütschg J.Posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10966894), etc. it also plays an important in regulating cells division and replication, thus reducing the risk of improper growth of cells, leading to tumors and cancers, according to the study of "Folate and cancer: how DNA damage, repair and methylation impact on colon carcinogenesis" by Duthie SJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20544289), reseachers concluded that Folate maintains genomic stability by regulating DNA biosynthesis, repair and methylation. Folate deficiency induces and accelerates carcinogenesis by perturbing each of these processes.

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Potassium
Beside is a important minerals for lymphatic function in regulating the body fluids, it is also essential in preventing the forming of kidney stone, according to the study of "Empiric use of potassium citrate reduces kidney-stone incidence with the ketogenic diet" by McNally MA, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Hamdy RF, Kossoff EH., posted in PubMed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596731), researchers wrote in conclusion that Oral potassium citrate is an effective preventive supplement against kidney stones in children who receive the KD, achieving its goal of urine alkalinization. Universal supplementation is warranted.

3. Phosphorus
Phosphorus beside plays an important role in supplying the body with phosphate in maintaining the healthy bone structure, according to the study of "VEGF incorporated into calcium phosphate ceramics promotes vascularisation and bone formation in vivo" by Wernike E, Montjovent MO, Liu Y, Wismeijer D, Hunziker EB, Siebenrock KA, Hofstetter W, Klenke FM.posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178096) it also aids in transmission of nerve impulses, thus promoting the information transmitting to the cells of the other part of the body. Levels of phosplate may cay cause Parkinson's disease, according to tyhe study of "Phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in early and advanced Parkinson's disease" by Hattingen E, Magerkurth J, Pilatus U, Mozer A, Seifried C, Steinmetz H, Zanella F, Hilker R., posted in PubMed, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19952056)

4. Iron
Iron beside is essential for forming of the red pigment called hemoglobin in the blood for carry oxygen and nutrients to the body cells, it also promotes oxygen absorption required for contraction of muscles.

5. Zinc
Zinc is essential mineral in prevent the enlarged prostate that can reduce the risk of abnormal sperm production, it also requires for the synthesis of collagen for healing of skin wounds, according to the study of "Collagen synthesis in connective tissue of wounded rat mesentery: effect of dietary zinc deficiency" by Agren MS, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1681930)

6. Polyunsaturated Fat
Leek contains polyunsaturated fat beside helping to improve the absorption of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, it also prevent the risk of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, according to the study of "Ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent lipoperoxidation, modulate antioxidant enzymes, and reduce lipid content but do not alter glycogen metabolism in the livers of diabetic rats fed on a high fat thermolyzed diet" by de Assis AM, Rech A, Longoni A, Rotta LN, Denardin CC, Pasquali MA, Souza DO, Perry ML, Moreira JC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21989716)
7. Etc.
Side effects
1. Oxalates
Oxalates in leek can cause problem for people with kidney diseases
2. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18986589
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11673117
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812337
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16987625

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859436
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185

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