Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Kiwifruit (A. chinensis)

Kiwifruit also best hnown as kiwi or Chinese gooseberry, is a species of A. chinensis belong to the family Actinidia, subgroup of the flavonoids and native to Southern China.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Lutein and Zeaxanthin
7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
8. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin E
14. Vitamin K
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Phosphorus
21. Sodium
22. Zinc
23. Etc.
Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Burn wound healing
In the evaluation of kiwifruit in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds in rats found that the dramatic antibacterial, debridement, wound contracture, and angiogenic effect of kiwifruit induced a significant wound healing in burn ulcers and might be useful in treating chronic ulcers, such as bedsores, according to "The effect of dressing with fresh kiwifruit on burn wound healing" by Mohajeri G, Masoudpour H, Heidarpour M, Khademi EF, Ghafghazi S, Adibi S, Akbari M.(a)

2. Hydrogen peroxide
In the evaluation of the effects of the two main kiwifruit cultivars (gold kiwifruit (GOK) and green kiwifruit (GRK)) and their active phenolic compound, quercetin, on H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells, found that the chemopreventive effect of quercetin on H2O2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2-Cx43 signalling and GJIC may be mediated through its free radical-scavenging activity. Since the carcinogenicity of reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 is attributable to the inhibition of GJIC, GOK, GRK and quercetin may have chemopreventive potential by preventing the inhibition of GJIC, according to "Quercetin, the active phenolic component in kiwifruit, prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication" by Lee DE, Shin BJ, Hur HJ, Kim JH, Kim J, Kang NJ, Kim DO, Lee CY, Lee KW, Lee HJ.(b)

3. Type 2 diabetes
In the investigation of six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas and their glycemic index found that there was no significant difference in glycemic index values between healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. There was also no significant difference in PII when comparing healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes and concluded that glycemic index and peak incremental indices in healthy subjects can be approximately the same for Type 2 diabetes, according to "Glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan: healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects compared" by Chen YY, Wu PC, Weng SF, Liu JF.(c)

4. Inflammatory bowel disease
In the observation of extracts from the fruits of yellow (Actinidia chinensis) or green-fleshed (A. deliciosa) kiwifruit and theirs effects on inflammatory bowel disease, found that the metabolism of these metabolites was affected by IL-10(-/-) -wild-type genotypic differences. Urinary metabolites previously associated with inflammation were not altered by the kiwifruit extracts. This study demonstrates the use of metabolomic analysis to study dietary effects and the influence of genotype on food metabolism, which may have implications on the development of functional foods for the treatment of IBD, according to "Metabolomic analysis reveals differences in urinary excretion of kiwifruit-derived metabolites in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease" by Lin HM, Edmunds SJ, Zhu S, Helsby NA, Ferguson LR, Rowan DD.(d)

5. Sleep disorders
In the classification of consuming 2 kiwifruits 1 hour before bedtime nightly for 4 weeks and its effect in the treatment of the sleep disorders found that kiwifruit consumption may improve sleep onset, duration, and efficiency in adults with self-reported sleep disturbances. Further investigation of the sleep-promoting properties of kiwifruit may be V, according to "Effect of kiwifruit consumption on sleep quality in adults with sleep problems" by Lin HH, Tsai PS, Fang SC, Liu JF.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
Besides is essential in preventing the breaking off small vein cause of hardening of the vessel wall, vitamin C also improves the digestive system in maximum absorption of vital nutrients. Overdoses can cause diarrhea, It also plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause muscle damage, according to the study of "Does antioxidant vitamin supplementation protect against muscle damage?" by McGinley C, Shafat A, Donnelly AE., posted in PubMed (

2. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(I)

3. Potassium
Beside is a important minerals for lymphatic function in regulating the body fluids, it is also essential in preventing the forming of kidney stone, according to the study of "Empiric use of potassium citrate reduces kidney-stone incidence with the ketogenic diet" by McNally MA, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Hamdy RF, Kossoff EH., posted in PubMed(, researchers wrote in conclusion that Oral potassium citrate is an effective preventive supplement against kidney stones in children who receive the KD, achieving its goal of urine alkalinization. Universal supplementation is warranted.

4. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(II)

5. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

6. Magnesium
Magnesium not only important for bone health, according to the study of "Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis?" by Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M(3) but also play and important role in protecting against Alzheimer's disease, according to the study of "Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease" by Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Bella G, Dominguez LJ.(IV)

7. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. AntioxidantsSince kiwifruit contains high amount of Vitamin C, it helps to enhance the immune function in fighting against forming of free radicals, thus reducing the risk of irregular cell growth, such as tumor and cancer, according to the study of "High-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer" by Ohno S, Ohno Y, Suzuki N, Soma G, Inoue M.(1)

2. Flavonoids
Flavonoids are water soluble polyphenolic molecule, including quercetin which is known for its ability to reduce the risk of cadiovascular dsieases by inhiboting LDL. according to the study of "Pomegranate juice flavonoids inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and cardiovascular diseases: studies in atherosclerotic mice and in humans" by Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Kaplan M, Coleman R, Gaitini D, Nitecki S, Hofman A, Rosenblat M, Volkova N, Presser D, Attias J, Hayek T, Fuhrman B.(2)

3. Omega 3 fatty acid and fiber
While Omega 3 fatty acid helps to balance the ratio of bad cholesterol, according to the study of " Health effects of omega-3,6,9 fatty acids: Perilla frutescens is a good example of plant oils" by Asif M. (3), fiber binds the bad cholesterol and expel them through waste, according to the study of "Guar gum and similar soluble fibers in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism: current understandings and future research priorities"
Rideout TC, Harding SV, Jones PJ, Fan MZ.(4), thus reducing the risk of bad cholesterol blocking the blood flow in blood vessels that reduce the risk of heart diseases.

4. Laxative effects
Fiber dissolves easily in water and passes through the intestines almost unchanged that help prevent hard, dry stools which are difficult to pass, according to the study of "A dietary fiber mixture versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood constipation: a double-blind randomized controlled trial" by Kokke FT, Scholtens PA, Alles MS, Decates TS, Fiselier TJ, Tolboom JJ, Kimpen JL, Benninga MA.(5)

5. Bleeding disorder
Vitamin K is important in reducing the risk of of abnormal bleeding. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) is a rare and potentially life-threatening bleeding disorder of early infancy, espcialy for breast feeding newborn, according to the study of "Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in early infancy" by Shearer MJ.(6)

6. Etc.

Side effects

1. Since kiwi contains high amount of oxalates, it may prevent our body from absorption of calcium
2. May cause allergic effect to some people 3. No other known side effects
3. Etc.

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