Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Celery (Apium graveolens)

Celery is a species of Apium graveolens, belong to the family Apiaceae. It is cultivated all around the globe as a vegetable. Celery can grow to 1/2 m tall with stalks (leaf on the top) arranging in a conical shape joined at a common base.

Nutritional Supplements

1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Water
7. Vitamin A
8. Vitamin B1
9. Vitamin B2
10. Vitamin B6
11. Vitamin C
12. Vitamin K
13. Folate
14. Calcium
15. Manganese
16. Magnesium
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Iron
20. Sodium
21. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Oxidative stress
in the investigation of flavonoid extracts from celery and its effect on oxidative stress induced by dichlorvos (DIC) in male Wistar rats found that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) in the DIC-treated group declined significantly when compared with the flavonoid extracts group and the DIC + flavonoid extracts group, respectively. With regard to GPx activity and MDA content, significant increase were showed in the DIC-treated group in comparison to those in the flavonoid extracts group and the DIC + flavonoid extracts group, respectively. The observations presented lead us to conclude the harmful effects of DIC during the exposure and the protective role of flavonoids in minimizing these effects, according to "Influence of flavonoid extracts from celery on oxidative stress induced by dichlorvos in rats" by Cao J, Zhang X, Wang Q, Jia L, Zhang Y, Zhao X.(a)

2. Antiradical activity
examined the antiradical activity and chemical composition of essential oils of some plants grown in Mosul, Iraq, including celery seed oil found that the dominant constituent of celery seed oil was limonene (76.63%). Diallyl disulphide was identified as the major component in garlic oil (36.51%). Antiradical activity was higher in garlic oil (76.63%) and lower in myrtle oil (39.23%). The results may suggest that some essential oils from Iraq possess compounds with antiradical activity, and these oils can be used as natural antioxidants in food applications, according to "Essential oil composition and antiradical activity of the oil of Iraq plants" by Kiralan M, Bayrak A, Abdulaziz OF, Ozbucak T.(b)

3. Hepatoprotective effect

In the assessment of Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains and theirs hepatoprotective effect in rats found that fhe histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases, according to "Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats" by Abd El-Mageed NM.(c)

4. Immunoreactivity
In the observation of the impact of thermal and high pressure (HP) processing on the immunoreactivity of the allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 3 and Api g 1 in apple and celeriac tissue, respectively, found that the combination of pressure and temperature significantly reduced its immunoreactivity. Pectin was found to protect Mal d 3 from thermal denaturation in solution and is a possible candidate for the protective effect of the fruit, according to "High-pressure treatment reduces the immunoreactivity of the major allergens in apple and celeriac" by Husband FA, Aldick T, Van der Plancken I, Grauwet T, Hendrickx M, Skypala I, Mackie AR.(d)

5. Antihyperlipidemic property
In the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic property of aqueous celery extract in rats found that an ethereal extract of the aqueous extract of celery by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with two different solvent systems showed that the extract did not contain 3-n-butylphthalide (BuPh), a unique compound in celery that has previously been reported to have lipid-lowering action, according to "Effects of aqueous celery (Apium graveolens) extract on lipid parameters of rats fed a high fat diet" by Tsi D, Das NP, Tan BK.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

2. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(1)

3. Vitamin A
As famous in improving eye sight, vitamin A also plays an important role in enhancing immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals that cause tissue, muscle and cellular damage and infection, according to the study of "Vitamin A, immunity, and infection" by Semba RD., posted in PubMed (, researchers found that vitamin A and its metabolites are immune enhancers that have been shown to potentiate antibody responses to T cell-dependent antigens, increase lymphocyte proliferation responses to antigens and mitogens, inhibit apoptosis, and restore the integrity and function of mucosal surfaces. Vitamin A and related retinoids may have potential applications in therapy for some infectious diseases.

4. Potassium
Beside is a important minerals for lymphatic function in regulating the body fluids, it is also essential in preventing the forming of kidney stone, according to the study of "Empiric use of potassium citrate reduces kidney-stone incidence with the ketogenic diet" by McNally MA, Pyzik PL, Rubenstein JE, Hamdy RF, Kossoff EH., posted in PubMed(, researchers wrote in conclusion that Oral potassium citrate is an effective preventive supplement against kidney stones in children who receive the KD, achieving its goal of urine alkalinization. Universal supplementation is warranted.

5. Molybdenum
Molybdenum cofactor is vital for human enzymes, including xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase, Deficiency may cause
a. Prenatal brain disruption, according to the study of "Prenatal brain disruption in molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Carmi-Nawi N, Malinger G, Mandel H, Ichida K, Lerman-Sagie T, Lev D.(II)

b. Uniparental isodisomy with microcephaly and developmental delay, according to the study of "Maternal uniparental isodisomy is responsible for serious molybdenum cofactor deficiency" by Gümüş H, Ghesquiere S, Per H, Kondolot M, Ichida K, Poyrazoğlu G, Kumandaş S, Engelen J, Dundar M, Cağlayan AO.(III)

6. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treat
a. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(IV)

b. Cholesterol and cardivascular diseases, as the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol, according to the study of "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA.(V)

7. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. PhthalidePhthalide, a unique compound of celery helps to relax and smooth muscles in the vessel walls that dilates and allows blood to flow more easily, by reducing the production of stress hormones called catecholamines that lessens the risk of hypertension, according to the article of "A Health Benefit of Celery isit`s ability to lower blood pressure"(1)

2. Weight loss
Celery contains high amount fiber which makes the stomach feeling fullness, thus reducing the urge of food craving, according to the study of "Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods" by Maki KC, Beiseigel JM, Jonnalagadda SS, Gugger CK, Reeves MS, Farmer MV, Kaden VN, Rains TM.(2)

3. Menstrual disorder
Celery contains apiol which has been used, as essential oil to treat menstrual disorders cause of amenorrhea or absence of menstruation. Apiol is toxic in high doses, causing both liver and kidney damage, according to the article of "Apiol" by Wikipedia,(3)

4. Immune function
High amount of vitamin C in celery helps to increase the immune function infighting against the forming of free radicals, and irregular cell growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Vitamin C and cancer: what can we conclude--1,609 patients and 33 years later?" by Cabanillas F.(4)

5. Oxidative stress
High amount of flavonoid in celery helps to reduce the risk of oxidative stress as a result of its antioxidant activity, according to the study of "Influence of flavonoid extracts from celery on oxidative stress induced by dichlorvos in rats" by Cao J, Zhang X, Wang Q, Jia L, Zhang Y, Zhao X.(5)

6. Osteoporosis and arterial calcification
Celery contains high amount of vitamin K which may be effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and arterial calcification, according to the study of "Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification" by Adams J, Pepping J.(6)

7. Etc.

Side effects

1. It may cause allergic effect for some people
2. Since it is a powerful vegetable in lowering high blood pressure, people with low blood pressure should consult with their doctor before eating high amount of celery, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
3. No other side effect is known.

Chinese Secrets To Fatty Liver And Obesity Reversal
Use The Revolutionary Findings To Achieve 
Optimal Health And Loose Weight

Super foods Library, Eat Yourself Healthy With The Best of the Best Nature Has to Offer

Back to Healthy Foods Index




No comments:

Post a comment