Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Animal products Turkey (Meleagris)

Turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris in the family Phasianidae native to the North America. Today, it has been raised as food for commercial purpose world wide as viewing as one of the most healthy meat. Large domesticated turkeys are generally unable to fly, but smaller turkeys known as "heritage turkeys" and "wild turkeys" can fly in a short distance.

Nutritional supplements
1. Protein
2. Carbohydrate
3. Fat
4. Vitamin B2
5. Vitamin B3
6. Vitamin B
7. Vitamin B12
8. Selenium
9. Phosphorous
10. Potassium,
11. Iron
12. Zinc
13. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
Niacin precursor
in the measurement of the conversion of tryptophan into niacin found that indicated the consistent, although inefficient, role of tryptophan as niacin precursor in turkeys fed a practical diet, compared with the reported conversion in other species, according to "Conversion of tryptophan into niacin in the turkey (Meleagris gallipavos)" by Ruiz N, Harms RH.(a)
2. Blood pressure
In the research of Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and its health effect found that a low-sodium DASH diet with a low dietary acid load, which also included lean red meat on most days of the week, was effective in reducing BP in older women, particularly in those taking antihypertensive medications, according to "Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women" by Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Pachett A.(a)

3. Good Sources of Nutrient
In the investigation of "Lean meat and heart health" found that lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. It is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors), according to "Lean meat and heart health" by Li D, Siriamornpun S, Wahlqvist ML, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ.(b)

4. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
In the study of fatty and lean meats and theirs saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol effect found that The proportion of CLA/SA+CH for lean beef eaters is 0.09 and the fatty meats 0.007 (g/100 g). As a consequence, the beneficial effects of minor amounts of CLA may be relatively enhanced in lean meat compared to fatty meat sub-products which contain a substantial amount of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, as in cold cuts and cow viscera, according to "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer" by Eynard AR, Lopez CB.(c)

5. Lean meat and over all health
In the observation of Dietary lean red meat and human evolution found that lean meat is a healthy and beneficial component of any well-balanced diet as long as it is fat trimmed and consumed as part of a varied diet, according to "Dietary lean red meat and human evolution" by Mann N.(d)


B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Trytophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(1)

2. Protein
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(2)

3. Selenium
Turkey contains trace minerals selenium which is essential for the healthy function of the thyroid and immune system as it increases the antioxidant defense system by fighting against the forming of free radicals and reduce the risk of irregular cells growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

4. Vitamin B3 or Niacin See B vitamin below
5. Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine See B vitamin below

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Vitamin B
a) Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin is one of very important vitamin in metabolism of energy by helping the transforming of fats, proteins and carbohydrates and high dose riboflavin appears to be useful alone or along with beta-blockers in the prevention of migraine, according to the study of "Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial" by Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9484373)

b) Vitamin B3
Vitamin B3 or Niacin is essential for lowering high cholesterol levels, according to the study of "Cholesterol efflux potential and antiinflammatory properties of high-density lipoprotein after treatment with niacin or anacetrapib" by Yvan-Charvet L, Kling J, Pagler T, Li H, Hubbard B, Fisher T, Sparrow CP, Taggart AK, Tall AR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20448206), forming the components of cells' genetic material DNA during excision repair, according to the study of "Niacin deficiency delays DNA excision repair and increases spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced chromosomal instability in rat bone marrow" by
Kostecki LM, Thomas M, Linford G, Lizotte M, Toxopeus L, Bartleman AP, Kirkland JB., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618655) and treating diabetes and high blood sugar levels, according to the study of "Treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes" by Vijayaraghavan K., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21172030), researcher indicated that a number of lipid-lowering agents, including statins, fibrates, niacin, and bile acid sequestrants, are available to target normalization of the entire lipid profile.
c) Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1131652)

2. Lower Blood sugar
Since it is a low carbohydrate food and low in glycemic index scale, it helps to maintain the slow release of insulin from the pancreas that can be helpful in regulating blood sugar.

3. Saturated fat ( It is essential but do not over dose)
a) Prevent cell membrane being damaged by free radical according to the study of "High fat diets varying in ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid and linoleic to linolenic acid: a comparison of rat neural and red cell membrane phospholipids" by Carlson SE, Carver JD, House SG., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2871142)
b) Saturated fat is rapidly absorbed, it besides can deliver quick nourishment without putting excessive strain on the digestive and enzyme systems, so it is good for people with digestive problem, it also is necessary for making bile acids for our body to digest fats and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and increases the absorption of calcium and magnesium and amino acids, according to the article of "Fat" by wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat)
c) Nerve and brain tissue is made up of 60% fat. One-third of these fats need to be polyunsaturated, derived directly from diet and other from cholesterol stored in our body. This will allow proper development and maintenance of nerve cell membranes as well as neurotransmitters in transformation between themselves and glands, according to the article of "Fat" by wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat)
d) Cholesterol in fat helps in production of female sex hormone, estradiol, and the male sex hormone, testosterone, according to the study of "Cellular cholesterol delivery, intracellular processing and utilization for biosynthesis of steroid hormones" by Hu J, Zhang Z, Shen WJ, Azhar S., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20515451)

4. Insomnia
Since it contain high amount of tryptophan which plays an essential role in manufacture of hormone melatonin, the hormone of helping to regulate sleep and wake cycles, according to the study of "Evaluation of L-tryptophan for treatment of insomnia: a review" by Schneider-Helmert D, Spinweber CL., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3090582)

5. Etc

Side effects
1. Saturated fat
a) 1. Heart diseases and stroke
Since it increases the levels of bad cholesterol, over eating will cause cholesterol building up in the blood stream, blocking the blood circulation, leading to high blood pressure resulting in heart diseases and stroke. It is said that high levels of bad cholesterol can be caused by hereditary factors, high blood pressure, stress, smoking, obesity and dietary cholesterol, according to the study of Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence" by Micha R, Mozaffarian D., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20354806)
b) Cancer
The Ontario Cancer Institute in Canada reviewed by comparing women with the highest and lowest fat intake. Women who ate high amounts of saturated fat were on average around 20 per cent more likely to develop breast cancer than low consumers of fat. Eating large amounts of saturated fats increased risk by about 10 per cent. A study also found that a noticeably elevated risk for carcinoid tumors in the small intestine in association with high amount of saturated fat intake, according to the study of "[Blood cholesterol levels and mortality in cancer].[Article in Slovak] by Ginter E., posted PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=satured%20fat%20and%20Cancer)
c) Insulin sensitive
Some studies found that over intake of saturated fat might interfere with the pancreas’s function in secretion of insulin, as resulting of blood clotted in the insulin receptor sites, leading to over-production of insulin, , according to the study of "High fat programming of beta-cell failure" by Cerf ME., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20217495) causing polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), resulting in infertility problems, irregular menstrual cycles, male growth pattern, etc.
d) Weight gain
Intake of high amounts of saturated fat can cause extra energy reserves accumulated in the waist area.
2. Purine
Since turkey, likes other animal products contains measure amount of purine, it may lead to excess accumulation of uric acid, leading to kidney stone and gout, if eating in large amount.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2345727
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19185772
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927927
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14498991
(e) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10918988

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563

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