Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Lean Meats - Venison

Venison is the menu name for lean deer meat, higher in moisture, similar in protein and lower in calories, cholesterol and fat if compare to other lean meat. In America, venison can be hunted as well as bought from the farms

Nutritional Supplements
1. Protein
2. Fat (both saturated and unsaturated fat)
3. Vitamin B complex, including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12.
4. Iron
5. Zinc
6. Selenium
7. Phosphorus
8. Copper
9. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Blood pressure
In the research of Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and its health effect found that a low-sodium DASH diet with a low dietary acid load, which also included lean red meat on most days of the week, was effective in reducing BP in older women, particularly in those taking antihypertensive medications, according to "Low-sodium Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-type diet including lean red meat lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women" by Nowson CA, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Pachett A.(a)

2. Good Sources of Nutrient
In the investigation of "Lean meat and heart health" found that lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. It is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors), according to "Lean meat and heart health" by Li D, Siriamornpun S, Wahlqvist ML, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ.(b)

3. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
In the study of fatty and lean meats and theirs saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol effect found that The proportion of CLA/SA+CH for lean beef eaters is 0.09 and the fatty meats 0.007 (g/100 g). As a consequence, the beneficial effects of minor amounts of CLA may be relatively enhanced in lean meat compared to fatty meat sub-products which contain a substantial amount of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, as in cold cuts and cow viscera, according to "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer" by Eynard AR, Lopez CB.(c)

4. Lean meat and over all health
In the observation of Dietary lean red meat and human evolution found that lean meat is a healthy and beneficial component of any well-balanced diet as long as it is fat trimmed and consumed as part of a varied diet, according to "Dietary lean red meat and human evolution" by Mann N.(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(1)

2. Protein and over all health
In the research of the importance of dietary proteins influence body weight by affecting four targets for body weight regulation: satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition, found that Ingestion of dietary proteins in diabetes type 1 exerts a delayed postprandial increase in blood glucose levels due to protein-induced stimulation of pancreatic glucagon secretion. Higher than minimal amounts of protein in the diet needed for nitrogen balance may play an important role for the increasing number of elderly obese subjects in our industrialized societies, since proteins exert beneficial effects in the conditions of overweight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, bone health, and sarcopenia. Adverse effects of increased dietary proteins have been observed in subjects with renal impairment- this problem is frequently observed in the elderly, hypertensive, and diabetic population. Nevertheless, dietary proteins deserve more attention than they have received in the past, according to "Dietary proteins in obesity and in diabetes" by Keller U.(2)

3. Zinc
In the assessment of zinc and its effect on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels found that exercise decreases thyroid hormones and testosterone in sedentary men; however, zinc supplementation prevents this decrease. Administration of a physiologic dose of zinc can be beneficial to performance, according to "Effect of fatiguing bicycle exercise on thyroid hormone and testosterone levels in sedentary males supplemented with oral zinc" by Kilic M.(3)

4. Vitamin B12
Besides supporting the production of red blood cell and maintaining the proper duplication of DNA, the genetic material in all cells, according to the study of "Vitamin B 12 and the macromolecular composition of Euglena. II. Recovery from unbalanced growth induced by Vitamin B 12 deficiency" by Johnston PL, Carell EF., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4633443), it also plays an important role in promoting neurite outgrowth, according to the study of "Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons stimulated by methylcobalamin" by Okada K, Tanaka H, Temporin K, Okamoto M, Kuroda Y, Moritomo H, Murase T, Yoshikawa H., posted in PuBmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458538)

5. Etc.

C. Other Health benefits
1. Iron
Venison is a good source of iron, which beside is an essential element for blood production and assists hemoglobin to transport oxygen and nutrients from the lungs to the body cells need, but also is important for the enzyme systems in energy production and metabolism. It is one of the best food for people with iron deficiency Anemia

2. Cholesterol
Beside is important for the healthy membranes, it also is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids, according to the study of "Enzymes in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids" by Norlin M, Wikvall K., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17346171) by promoting the processing of dietary fat, steroid hormones, including sex hormones and Vitamin D. according to the study of "Regulation of bile acid synthesis" by Chiang JY., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9450986), researcher wrote that Bile acids are important physiological agents required for disposal of cholesterol and absorption of vitamins and fats.

3. Heart diaereses and stroke
Vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 t reduce the levels of homocysteine, thus preventing the risk of damage blood vessels and breaking of capillaries, leading to heart diseases and stroke.. according to the study of "B vitamins in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke in the VITAmins TO Prevent Stroke (VITATOPS) trial: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial" by VITATOPS Trial Study Group, posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20688574)

5. Immune system
Selenium is a powerful antioxidant that helps to improve the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals and reducing the risk of infection and inflammation caused by irregular cells growth, foreign invasion, according to the study of "Selenium in the immune system" by Arthur JR, McKenzie RC, Beckett GJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730442)

5. Etc.

Side effects
1. Saturated fat
Intake of high amount of saturated fat causes cholesterol building up in the arteries, leading to heart diseases and stroke.
2. Purines
Purines can cause gout and forming of kidney stone due to excessive accumulation of uric acid.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19185772
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15927927
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14498991
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10918988
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22139563
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984944

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