Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Animal products - Calf's Liver

Calf’s liver
Calf’s liver is a major dietary source of iron, considered as higher in the water-soluble protein albumin than beef. It's delicious taste and texture for calf's liver fans. In United States, many Americans were not interested in eating liver, but the new trend as the discovery of the health benefits of iron-rich liver, many of them start to like it such as the dish of calf' liver and bacon.

Nutritional supplements
1. Phosphorus
2. Vitamin A
3. Vitamin B complex (B2, B3, B5. B6 and B12)
4. Vitamin C
5. Vitamin D
5. Omega-3 fatty acids
6. Calcium
7. Copper
8. Zinc
9. Iron
10. Phosphorus
11. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Cardiovascular diseases
In the investigation of C-reactive protein (CRP) (found abundantly in calf' liver) is a marker of systemic inflammation, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, found that evidence supporting the assessment of highly sensitive CRP both in patients with established CV diseases and in those without known disease as well as evidence supporting CRP as a target of therapy. We also review various pharmacologic (especially intensive statin therapy) and nonpharmacologic therapies to reduce levels of CRP(a)

2. Depressive symptoms
In the research of folic acid and vitamin B12 (found abundantly in calf' liver) and theirs effect in mental health found that mental health literacy had a transient effect on depressive symptoms. Other than this, none of the interventions significantly reduced symptoms relative to their comparator at 6 weeks or subsequently. Neither folic acid plus B(12) nor physical activity were effective in reducing depressive symptoms.(b)

3. Emphysema
In the assessment of vitamin A (found abundantly in calf' liver)deficiency per se causes emphysema found that detachment or hyperplasia (and metaplasia) of the tracheal epithelium and liver vacuole formation also were evident in the smoke-treated rats. The results of this research indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke induces vitamin A depletion in rats, which is associated with the development of emphysema(c)

4. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin A
Although vitamin A is best known to benefit the retina of the eye sight in the form of a specific metabolite for for both low-light and color vision, accoring to the study of "WHO's mission for vision' by [No authors listed], posted in PubMed (1) and guards us against bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, it is also an anti-oxidant, helping to protect our cells against cancer and other disease, according to the study of "Low serum-vitamin-A and subsequent risk of cancer. Preliminary results of a prospective study" by Wald N, Idle M, Boreham J, Bailey A., posted in PubMed (2), researchers indicated that measures taken to increase serum-retinol levels in man may lead to a reduction in cancer risk.

2. Vitamin B12
Besides supporting the production of red blood cell and maintaining the proper duplication of DNA, the genetic material in all cells, according to the study of "Vitamin B 12 and the macromolecular composition of Euglena. II. Recovery from unbalanced growth induced by Vitamin B 12 deficiency" by Johnston PL, Carell EF., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4633443), it also plays an important role in promoting neurite outgrowth, according to the study of "Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons stimulated by methylcobalamin" by Okada K, Tanaka H, Temporin K, Okamoto M, Kuroda Y, Moritomo H, Murase T, Yoshikawa H., posted in PuBmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21458538)

3. Copper
Copper plays a role in a wide range of physiological processes, such as iron utilization of enhancing the hemoglobin. and reduction of malabsorption syndrome. according to the study of "Beneficial effect of goat milk on nutritive utilization of iron and copper in malabsorption syndrome" by Barrionuevo M, Alferez MJ, Lopez AI, Sanz SM, Campos MS., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11949871).

4. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(3)

5. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(4)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Immune system
Selenium (found abundantly in calf' liver) and vitamin C are essential nutrients necessary to improve immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals that reduce the risk of irregular cell growth, according to the study of "Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses" by Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH., posted in PubMed (5), researchers found that Overall, inadequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body's natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity.

2. Vitamin B complex
Besides as a important source of protein after breaking breaks down into amino acids for building muscles and blood, it also contains high levels of vitamin B12, folate, and riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 that are essential to decrease the converting of chemical homocysteine thus decreasing the risk of heart attack and stroke, according to the study of "Homocysteine Lowering with Folic Acid and B Vitamins in Vascular Disease" by The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE), posted in The New England Journal of Medicine (6).

3. Prostate health and fertility
Zinc (Found abundantly in calf' liver) is important for a healthy prostate, deficiency of zinc cause enlarged prostate, according to the study of "Zinc status of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma" by Christudoss P, Selvakumar R, Fleming JJ, Gopalakrishnan G., posted in PubMed (7) impotence, sexuality and ejaculation. It is also needed for the production of sperm and seminal fluid thus increasing the chance for normal sperm count and quality, according to the study of "Effects of autoimmunity to the prostate on the fertility of the male rat" by Motrich RD, Mackern-Oberti JP, Maccioni M, Rivero VE., posted in PubMed (8)

4. Alzheimer's disease.
Omega-3 fatty acids(found abundantly in calf' liver) besides best known as guarding our body against the risk of cardiovascular diseases, according to the study of "Omega-3 Fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention" by Defilippis AP, Blaha MJ, Jacobson TA , posted in PubMed (9), they also improve the ratio of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acid, thus reducing the level of bad cholesterol in blood and preventing blood clotting, resulting in lessening the risk of Alzheimer's disease, According to the study of "Dietary lipids and their oxidized products in Alzheimer's disease", by Corsinovi L, Biasi F, Poli G, Leonarduzzi G, Isaia G., posted in PubMed (10)

6. Etc.

Side effects1. Purines
Since calf' liver contains measure amount of purine, it may lead to excess accumulation of uric acid, leading to kidney stone and gout, if eating in large amount.
2. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20010156
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20592433
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12888649
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12294120
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=vitamin%20Aand%20cancer
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539268
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17922955
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16531613
(7) http://www.indianjurol.com/article.asp?issn=0970-1591;year=2011;volume=27;issue=1;spage=14;epage=18;aulast=Christudoss;type=0
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18976751
(9) http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7430/30.full
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21954186

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