Discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues back in the 1930`s. In Laboratory tests, B
bioflavonoids help to reduce the fragility and “permeability” in capillaries and prevent the clotting up of arterial as a result of oxidation.
2. Vitamins C and E, beta-carotene
Recent research findings have suggested that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and beta carotene play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Data from animal studies showed they are able to prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL).
Alpha-tocopherol, a antioxidant found abundant in vitamin E, helps to decrease lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation, adhesion and inflammatory. Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
4. Vitamin C and E
Studies showed in take of 500mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E helps to retard the progression of coronary atherosclersis.
Antioxidant chorophyll in the green algae shows to inhibit the chemical cadmium of smoking, by preventing from oxidation that cause building up of plaque along the walls of arteries.
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Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.
7. Glutathione and vitamin E
Reduced form of glutathione may act as a first line of defense against oxidative stress during ischemia–reperfusion while vitamin E may act later on during severe oxidative stress by rendering resistance to the heart against the ischemic–reperfusion injury
8. 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T)
Researcher found that in rat cardiac H9c2 cells, D3T and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), GSH S-transferase (GST), and NADH:quinone oxidoreduc- tase-1 (NQO1) help to protect against H9c2 cell injury caused by various oxidants and simulated ischemia-reperfusion. D3T pretreatment also resulted in decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen in H9c2 cells after exposure to the oxidants as well as simulated ischemia-reperfusion.
Deficiency of of a co-enzyme selenium, which is required in maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, also promote more susceptible to oxidative injure.
The declining of the thymus function contributes a direct effect on the immune system due to diminish of quantity of T cells and immune factors.
11. Lipid peroxidation
Researchers found that lipid peroxidation are able to attack immune cells membrane, leading to the impediment of cells membrane activities, causing susceptibility diseases found in aging person.
12. NADHP oxidase
NADHP oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex found in the plasma membrane. Free radicals cause damage to membrane, leading to diminish of its function in fighting against foreign invasion.
Free radicals damage immune cells that affect the function of cytokines in transmitting intercellular signals, leading to many disease states and conditions ranging from major depression and Alzheimer's disease to cancer.