Thursday, 28 November 2013

Cerebral aneurysm Preventions - The Diet

Cerebral aneurysm is defined as a cerebrovascular disorder causes of the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out of the wall of a blood vessel as a result of the weaken of blood vessels and veins and occurred mostly at the bifurcations and branches of the large arteries located at the Circle of Willis.
Diet against Cerebral Aneurysm
The aim of the diet is to enhance the immune function, prevent cholesterol and Lower estrogen levels after menopause causes of  Cerebral Aneurysm
1. Tofu or bean curd is soft white blocks made by coagulating soy milk with substance such as salt or acid or enzyne, a stable emulsion of oil, water, and protein that can be made into tofu, originated from Chinese and part of East and Southeast Asian. Since it is proven to be one of many healthy foods, it become synonymous with vegetarianism and others.
a. Metabolic syndrome
In the
assessment of the effect of low daily intake of soybeans in oxidative stress and it effects on the metabolic syndrome (MS) found that Low intake of soy protein for 90 days, besides being well tolerated by the patients, was able to improve several parameters related to the pathophysiology of MS, according to the study of "[Evaluation of the intake of a low daily amount of soybeans in oxidative stress, lipid and inflammatory profile, and insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome].[Article in Portuguese] by Bahls LD, Venturini D, Scripes Nde A, Lozovoy MA, Simão TN, Simão AN, Dichi I, Morimoto HK.(42)

b. Cardiovascular Benefits

Research found that protein of tofu significantly decreases the serum cholesterol by decreasing the levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) but leaving the good cholesterol (HDL) remain the same According to the study of "Effect of soy and milk protein supplementation on serum lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial" by Wofford MR, Rebholz CM, Reynolds K, Chen J, Chen CS, Myers L, Xu J, Jones DW, Whelton PK, He J.(43). It also benefits the cardiovascular health (according to the study of "Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee" by Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M (44)
c. Superoxide dismutase
Superoxide dismutase are an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen as a class of enzymes that catalyzes the dismutation of free radicals due to existence of copper and Zn in tofu (according to the study of "Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene dosage and cell resistance to oxidative stress: a review" by Peskin AV., posted in Pubmed, researchers found thatt here are data that increasing only Cu,Zn-SOD can be toxic, and the balance between Cu,Zn-SOD and peroxide-removing enzymes is supposed to be of prime importance in the antioxidant defense. Role of Cu,Zn-SOD deregulation in carcinogenesis is discussed(45).
d. Selenium
Selenium is classified as one of antioxidant trace mineral that helps to increase the immune function to fight the forming of free radicals, infection and inflammation caused by oxidation, irregular cells growth, virus and bacteria, etc., according tothe study of "Protective role of intraperitoneally administrated vitamin E and selenium on the levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of muscle and liver tissues in rats" by Yilmaz O, Celik S, Cay M, Naziroğlu M.(46), researchers found that the level of total lipid and cholesterol in muscle and liver tissues were reduced by administrating vitamin E and Se together. Additionally, the fatty acid synthesis in the muscle and liver tissues was decreased by this process) and prevent plague accumulated cause of Atherosclerosis (according to the study of 'Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" by Bleys J, Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Appel LJ, Guallar E.(47), thus reducing the risk of heart diseases and hypertension.
2. Dulse
Dulse is a red seaweed of genus Palmaria, belong to Family Palmariaceae that grows attached to rocks by a "holdfast" in the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific. It is commonly used in Ireland and Atlantic Canada both as food and medicinally and is now shipped around the globe. Dulse is found in many health food stores or fish markets or can be ordered directly from local distributors.
a.  Health benefits
In the assessment of nutritional and physiological properties of edible seaweeds is presented. Seaweeds are traditionally consumed in Asia as sea vegetables found that Seaweeds showed important functional activities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant effect, antitumor activity, and an important role in the modification of lipid metabolism in human body. In conclusion, seaweeds have a high nutritional value, therefore an increase in their consumption, would elevate the foods offer to population, according to "[Nutritional evaluation and physiological effects of edible seaweeds].[Article in Spanish]" by Jiménez-Escrig A, Goñi Cambrodón I.(48)

b. Antioxidant
In assessment of polyphenol content of the dulse extract of two grades of dulse harvested from Canadian Maritime locations differing in UV radiation exposure (i.e. west versus east coasts of Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and their antiodant effects found that The 1-butanol soluble extract from Grade 1 dulse (reduced UV-exposure) exhibited lower reducing activity versus Grade 2 dulse (greater UV exposure) reflecting a lower requirement for endogenous antioxidant protection. Grade 1 and 2 dulse extracts both inhibited (p0.03) AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation, but had no effect on AMVN-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the aqueous nature of the antioxidants involved, according to "Extracts from dulse (Palmaria palmata) are effective antioxidants and inhibitors of cell proliferation in vitro" by Yuan YV, Carrington MF, Walsh NA.(49)
c. Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll, a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, beside it is best known for its cleansing body and healing to vital organs properties. It also reduces the binding of carcinogens to DNA in the liver and other organs, thus reducing the risk of cancer according to the study of "Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation" by Osowski A, Pietrzak M, Wieczorek Z, Wieczorek J.(50), researchers indicated that in order to bind 50% of the mutagen in a complex, less than twice the concentration of chlorophyllin was needed......
3. Raspberries are perennial, the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus belong to the family Rosaceae, originated from Europe. Because of their commercial values and health benefits, they have been grown for processing of quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or as dried fruit used in a variety of grocery products.
a. Human healthIn the investigation of Raspberries and its effect on human health found that the nutritional and phytochemical compositions of red raspberries and their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity are reviewed. Finally, future directions of research are also identified, according to "Raspberries and human health: a review" by Rao AV, Snyder DM.(51)

b. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and ellagitannins

In the assessment of raspberries and its Bioavailability of anthocyanins and ellagitannins effects found that no intact or conjugated forms of ellagitannins were detected in urine from either healthy subjects or ileostomy volunteers. However, in healthy subjects, but not the ileostomists, ellagitannins were catabolized with the appearance of urolithin A-O-glucuronide, two of its isomers, and urolithin B-O-glucuronide in urine collected 7-48 h after raspberry consumption. There was marked variation in the urolithin profile of individual volunteers, indicating differences in the colonic microflora responsible for ellagitannin degradation, according to "Bioavailability of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following consumption of raspberries by healthy humans and subjects with an ileostomy" by
González-Barrio R, Borges G, Mullen W, Crozier A.(52)
c. Degenerative diseases of ageing
Long-term vitamin K inadequacy may reduce the function of supporting the carboxylation of at least some of these Gla-protein that can lead the development of degenerative diseases of ageing including osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, according to the study of "Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing" by Cees Vermeer and Elke Theuwissen(53)
d. Intracranial bleeding
In a study in the 4-year study period, 16/64 (25%) of the infants admitted with intracranial bleeding had late intracranial VKDB, resulting in an overall incidence of 2.1/100,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.5) conducted by University Medical Center Utrecht(54) indicated that Intracranial bleeding may be associated with vitamin K deficiency

Flax seed
Flax seed is native to the region of the eastern Mediterranean to India and also known as common flax or linseed. Flax is an erect annual plant, it can grow to 1.2 m tall. The leaves are 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad.
a. Hyperlipidemia
In the
examination of the effects of flax and sesame seeds mixture on Hyperlipidemia
found that Diet supplemented with flax and sesame seeds mixture in pregnant diabetic rats ameliorated lipid parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, level of reduced glutathione and significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde levels, according to "Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid prevents hyperlipidemia and hepatic oxidant status in pregnant diabetic rats and their macrosomic offspring" by Makni M, Sefi M, Garoui el M, Fetoui H, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.(55)

Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects
In the evaluation of
a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids of Flax and pumpkin seedsand theirs anti-atherogenic and hepatoprotective activities. found that flax and pumpkin seed mixture had anti-atherogenic and hepatoprotective effects which were probably mediated by unsaturated fatty acids present in seed mixture, according to "Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of flax and pumpkin seed mixture rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterolemic rats" by Makni M, Fetoui H, Gargouri NK, Garoui el M, Jaber H, Makni J, Boudawara T, Zeghal N.(56)

c. Cardiovascular diseases
In the research of
Flaxseed and its effect on cardiovascular risk found that flaxseed can modestly reduce serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, reduce postprandial glucose absorption, decrease some markers of inflammation, and raise serum levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid. Data on the antiplatelet, antioxidant, and hypotensive effects of flaxseed, however, are inconclusive. More research is needed to define the role of this functional food in reducing cardiovascular risk, according to "Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk' by Bloedon LT, Szapary PO.(57)

Hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis
In the evaluation of
Flaxseed (Type I flaxseed) and CDC-flaxseed (Type II flaxseed) and theirs effect onhypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis found that Type II flaxseed reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 69%, according to "Reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by CDC-flaxseed with very low alpha-linolenic acid" by Prasad K, Mantha SV, Muir AD, Westcott ND.(58)

e. Anti-
hormono-dependant cancers
In the observation of Flax lignans belonging to the phytoestrogens, metabolised after ingestion into enterolignans and its protective effect against the onset and development of hormono-dependant cancers found that in vitro studies based on mammalian cellular models tend to confirm their beneficial effects observed during epidemiological studies and give us insights about their mechanisms of action, according to "[Interest of lignans in prevention and treatment of cancers].[Article in French]" by Lamblin F, Hano C, Fliniaux O, Mesnard F, Fliniaux MA, Lainé E.(59)
5. Green tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
a. Immune system
Polyphenols, one of more powerful form of antioxidant not only helps to improve the immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals and guarding our body from foreign invasion, such as virus and bacteria, thus reducing the risk of inflammation and lessening the risk of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cause coronary heart disease, according to the study of "Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease" by Kanti Bhooshan Pandey and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi, (60)

b. Tannins
A group of simple and complex phenol, polyphenols, and flavonoid compounds, once are considered anti nutritional but it is now known of their beneficial depending to their chemical structure and dosage for its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic effects due oxidative stress, according tothe study of "Effects of green tea tannin on cisplatin-induced nephropathy in LLC-PK1 cells and rats" Yokozawa T, Nakagawa T, Lee KI, Cho EJ, Terasawa K, Takeuchi S.(61)

c. Catechins
Catechins are a category of polyphenols contained epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 25-100 times more potent than vitamins C and E that help to protect the body from oxidative damage by enhancing the immune function in fighting against forming of free radicals cause of cancer, according to the study of "Green tea catechins augment the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in an in vivo mouse model for chemoresistant liver cancer" by Liang G, Tang A, Lin X, Li L, Zhang S, Huang Z, Tang H, Li QQ.(62)

d. Flavonoids
Flavonoids are best known as an antioxidant that help to protect our body from forming free-radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease, irregular cell causes of cancer activity and immunodeficiency virus functions, according to the study of "Vegetable flavonoids and cardiovascular disease" by Terao J, Kawai Y, Murota K.(63)
6. Etc.

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