Thursday, 15 June 2017

The Research and studies of Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): Rheumatoid Arthritis - The Diagnosis - C-reactive protein

Kyle J. Norton, Master of Nutrients
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

                                        Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis is defined a chronic disorder as a result of inflammation, affecting mostly the flexible (synovial) joints and tissues and organs in the body. The disease affects more women than men and generally occurs after the ages of 40, causing diminished quality of life of many elders(1). According to CDC, Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affects over 52 millions of adults in the US alone, including 294,000 children under age 18 with some form of arthritis or rheumatic conditions(2). Rheumatoid Arthritis can induced bone loss through elevating bone resorption without increasing bone formation(4). A cross-sectional population-based study of 1042 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that RA patients had an increased risk of death from various causes(4a).

The Diagnosis - C-reactive protein

If you are experience certain subtle symptoms, such as achy joints or a morning stiffness, etc, may be at the early stage onset of rheumatoid arthritis. If your doctor suspect that have develop RA because of some RA symptoms such as such as warmth, swelling and pain in the joints, after physical exam, certain blood tests may be necessary, including

A group of "acute phase reactants" protein produced by liver and found in patient with rheumatoid arthritis.,tends to elevate in case of inflammation. According to the Copenhagen University Hospital, oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) does not effects the levels of protein but may be constituted to the influence of NSAIDs on cardiovascular complications in patient with RA(66).

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(1) 8 Areas of Age-Related Change(NIH)
(2) Arthritis-Related Statistics(CDC)
(3) Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis by Keenan MA1, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, Perry J.(PubMed)
(4) Serum Sclerostin Level Among Egyptian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Relation to Disease Activity ,Bone Mineral Density and Radiological Grading by Mehaney DA, Eissa M, Anwar S, El-Din SF(PubMed)
(4a) Death rates and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study by Sihvonen S1, Korpela M, Laippala P, Mustonen J, Pasternack A(PubMed)
(64) Risk of rheumatoid arthritis following vaccination with tetanus, influenza and hepatitis B vaccines among persons 15-59 years of age by Ray P1, Black S, Shinefield H, Dillon A, Carpenter D, Lewis E, Ross P, Chen RT, Klein NP, Baxter R; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team.(PubMed)
(65) Can immunisation trigger rheumatoid arthritis? by D P Symmons and K Chakravarty(PubMed)
(64a) Comparative usefulness of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Wolfe F1.(PubMed)
(65a) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, or rheumatoid factor are normal at presentation in 35%-45% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen between 1980 and 2004: analyses from Finland and the United States by Sokka T1, Pincus T.(PubMed)
(66) Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the C-reactive protein level in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by Tarp S1, Bartels EM, Bliddal H, Furst DE, Boers M, Danneskiold-Sams√łe B, Rasmussen M, Christensen R.(PubMed)
(67) Prevalence and outcomes of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review of the literature by Wilson A1, Yu HT, Goodnough LT, Nissenson AR.(PubMed)
(68) Anti-CCP antibodies: the past, the present and the future by van Venrooij WJ1, van Beers JJ, Pruijn GJ.(PubMed)
(69) Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in early rheumatoid arthritis by Suwannalai P1, Trouw LA, Toes RE, Huizinga TW(PubMed)
(70) Expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 in peripheral blood monocytes and synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Pawlik A1, Kotrych D2, Paczkowska E3, Roginska D3, Dziedziejko V4, Safranow K4, Machalinski B5.(PubMed)
(71) Elevated expression of interleukin-7 receptor in inflamed joints mediates interleukin-7-induced immune activation in rheumatoid arthritis by Hartgring SA1, van Roon JA, Wenting-van Wijk M, Jacobs KM, Jahangier ZN, Willis CR, Bijlsma JW, Lafeber FP.(PubMed)
(72) Interferon-gamma-inducing activity of interleukin-18 in the joint with rheumatoid arthritis by Yamamura M1, Kawashima M, Taniai M, Yamauchi H, Tanimoto T, Kurimoto M, Morita Y, Ohmoto Y, Makino H.(PubMed)
(73) [Risk factors for bone mineral density changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fracture risk assessment].[Article in Chinese] by Wang Y1, Hao YJ1, Deng XR1, Li GT1, Geng Y1, Zhao J1, Zhou W1, Zhang ZL1.(PubMed)
(74) The relationship between soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing and erosive damage in hand X-rays of patients with rheumatoid arthritis by Kirwan J1, Byron M, Watt I.(PubMed)

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