Thursday, 28 November 2013

Thyroid disease: Thyroid adenoma prevntion - The Antioxidants

Thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands found in the neck, below the Adam’s Apple with the function of regulating the body use of energy, make of proteins by producing its hormones as a result of the stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary.
Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid.
Thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor started in the layer of cell lined the inner surface of the thyroid gland. The disease are relatively common among adults living in the United States. According to the study by the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, there is a report of 4 patients described in whom a follicular carcinoma developed following thyroidectomy for a benign follicular neoplasm. Most thyroid nodules are Thyroid adenoma.
E. Preventions
E.3. Antioxidants to prevent thyroid adenoma
1. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA)
Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane, according to the study by the University of Ulsan College of Medicine(35).
2. Selenium
According to the study by the Cancer Registry of Norway, early case-control and intervention studies suggested that selenium (Se) species might reduce the risk of cancer and in a pre-diagnostic case-control study from 1986 [1] we found that the higher the serum Se concentration, the lower was the odds ratio of thyroid cancer. Our data showed, however, that this observation occurred late in the pre-diagnostic period indicating that low serum Se was simply a consequence of thyroid cancer(36).
3. Vitamin D
The association between vitamin D and thyroid cancer is unclear. It is unknown if CYP27A1 or CYP2R1 are present in normal thyroid or cancer cells and there is limited information regarding response to treatment with vitamin D.According to the study by the, vitamin D(3), 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) all had an antiproliferative effect on two thyroid cancer cell lines(37).
4. Vitamin E and coenzyme Q
In the study to clarify the different roles of free radical scavenging systems in various thyroid disorders, we measured the levels of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and coenzyme Q in the thyroid tissues of patients with thyroid tumors and Graves’ disease using high-performance liquid chromatography, found that the level of coenzyme Q was reduced in the thyroid tissue of patients with Graves’ disease and follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. These findings imply that vitamin E and coenzyme Q as scavengers play some role in thyroid follicular cell hyperfunction or dysfunction(38).
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