Thyroid disease is defined as a condition of malfunction of thyroid.
Thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor started in the layer of cell lined the inner surface of the thyroid gland. The disease are relatively common among adults living in the United States. According to the study by the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, there is a report of 4 patients described in whom a follicular carcinoma developed following thyroidectomy for a benign follicular neoplasm. Most thyroid nodules are Thyroid adenoma.
E.2. Phytochemicals to prevent thyroid adenoma
1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)
According to the study by the Health and Nutrition Sciences, University of Calabria, EGCG (10, 40, 60 μM) treatment inhibited the growth of FB-2 and WRO cells in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were associated with reduced cyclin D1, increased p21 and p53 expression. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. In addition EGCG treatment results in reduction of cell motility and migration. Changes in motility and migration in FB-2 were associated with modulation in the expression of several proteins involved in cell adhesion and reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. After 24 h EGCG caused an increase of the E-cadherin expression and a concomitant decrease of SNAIL, ZEB and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST. Besides expression of Vimentin, N-cadherin and α5-integrin was down-regulated(31). Other study indicated that EGCG treatment inhibited the growth of ARO cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG suppressed phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These changes were associated with increased p21 and reduced cyclin B1/CDK1 expression. In addition, EGCG treatment increased the accumulation of sub-G1 cell, activated caspase-3 and cleaved PARP(32).
2. Isoflavone derivatives
Antiproliferative effect of cD-tBoc on these cells is mediated through ERβ. Furthermore, cD-tBoc potently increased apoptosis and cell necrosis. Co-incubation with the antiapoptotic agent Z-VAD-FMK reversed the growth inhibitory effect elicited by cD-tBoc. These results support the hypothesis that estrogens are involved in the proliferation of MTC. The potent anti-proliferative effects mediated by isoflavone derivatives in the human MTC cell line TT suggest and that this property may be utilized to design effective anti-neoplastic agents, according to study by the Tel-Aviv University(33).
Epidemiological and pathological data suggest that thyroid cancer may well be an estrogen-dependent disease. In the study of the relationship between thyroid cancer risk and dietary phytoestrogens, which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties, using the present data from a multiethnic population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of 817 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1998 (1992 and 1998 for Asian women), 608 (74%). Of 793 controls identified through random-digit dialing, 558 (70%) indicated that phytoestrogen consumption was assessed via a food-frequency questionnaire and a newly developed nutrient database. The consumption of traditional and nontraditional soy-based foods and alfalfa sprouts were associated with reduced risk of thyroid cancer. Consumption of “western” foods with added soy flour or soy protein did not affect risk. Of the seven specific phytoestrogenic compounds examined, the isoflavones, daidzein and genistein [odds ratio (OR), 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-1.1; and OR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.41-1.0, for the highest versus lowest quintile of daidzein and genistein, respectively] and the lignan, secoisolariciresinol (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89, for the highest versus lowest quintile) were most strongly associated with risk reduction. Findings were similar for white and Asian women and for pre- and postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that thyroid cancer prevention via dietary modification of soy and/or phytoestrogen intake in other forms may be possible but warrants further research at this time(34).
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