Monday, 25 November 2013

Pulmonary vascular disease: Pulmonary edema and Phytochemicals

Pulmonary vascular disease is defined as a condition of blood flow to the lung’s artery is blocked suddenly due to a blood clot somewhere in the body, including pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, pulmonary edema, etc.
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema is defined as a condition of fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs of that can lead to difficult of breathing and respiratory failure.
V. Preventions
B. Phytochemicals to prevent Pulmonary edema
1. Resveratrol
Resveratrol is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in skins and seed of grape wine, nuts, peanuts, etc.
a. Cardiovascular diseasesIn the revie of reviews some of the key studies, and the known mechanisms for these beneficial effects. Evidence from different experimental studies, including from the authors’ laboratories, and the beneficial effects of polyphenols found in red wine, especially resveratrol in grape skins.
found that Resveratrol benefits include a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, lung cancer and prostate cancer by approximately 30% to 50%, 57% and 50%, respectively. Polyphenols possess antioxidant, superoxide-scavenging, ischemic-preconditioning and angiogenic properties. Some of these properties of polyphenols may explain their protective effects on the cardiovascular system, as well as other body organs, according to “Significance of wine and resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: French paradox revisited” by Vidavalur R, Otani H, Singal PK, Maulik N.(50).
b. Cardiovascular health
In the review of Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene), a member of natural, plant-derived chemicals known as polyphenols and is attracting increased attention due to its diverse health benefits especially in case of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and neurological problems, indicated that Recently, resveratrol was found to induce autophagy and regenerate myocardial ischemic tissue treated with stem cells. Overall observation indicates that resveratrol has a high therapeutic potentials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, according to “Resveratrol and cardiovascular health” by Das M, Das DK.(51).
2. Phytosterols Phytosterols are a subgroup of lipids, the steroid compounds similar to cholesterol in plant, Researchers have found more than 200 of them.
1. Cholesterol
Phytosterols are best best known to have a property in lowering the blood cholesterol, according to the study of ” Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to plant sterols and plant stanols and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 549, 550, 567, 713, 1234, 1235, 1466, 1634, 1984, 2909, 3140), and maintenance of normal prostate size and normal urination (ID 714, 1467, 1635) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006″, posted in EFSA Journak, researchers filed in summary that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of plant sterols and plant stanols and the reduction of blood cholesterol concentrations.
2. Coronary heart disease
In most case, if a substance have a good effect in lowering blood cholesterol concentration, it may also promote heart health. In a study of ” Plant Sterols and Blood Cholesterol Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to plant sterols and lower/reduced blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061″ from Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies Adopted on 11 July 2008, researchers indicated that Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) blood cholesterol is one recognised risk factor for
coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is an important cause of mortality and morbidity.
Lowering LDL-cholesterol by dietary intervention has been shown to reduce the risk of
coronary heart disease. The Panel considers that the claimed effect of lowering LDLcholesterol
is beneficial to human health.
3. Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin, including catechins, is a phytochemical of Flavan-3-ols, in the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in green tea, St John wort, black Tea, carob flour, Fuji apples, etc.
a Cardiovascular diseases
In the identification of green tea catechins and its lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases, found that green tea catechins, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, interfere with the emulsification, digestion, and micellar solubilization of lipids, critical steps involved in the intestinal absorption of dietary fat, cholesterol, and other lipids. Based on the observations, it is likely that green tea or its catechins lower the absorption and tissue accumulation of other lipophilic organic compounds, according to “Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect” by Koo SI, Noh SK.(52).
b. Cholesterol
In the examination of the influence of green tea extract, epicatechin (EC), epicatechin galate (ECG) as well as epigallocatechin galate (EGCG) on oxidative modifications of LDL of human blood serum, found that Catechins and green tea abilities to protect lipophilic antioxidant–alpha-tocopherol against oxidation have been also examined. The results reveal that peroxidation of LDL is markedly prevented by green tea extract and in a slightly weaker way by catechins (EGCG in particular), which is manifested by a decrease in concentration of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, MDA, dityrosine and by an increase in tryptophan content, according to “The comparison of effect of catechins and green tea extract on oxidative modification of LDL in vitro” by Ostrowska J, Skrzydlewska E.(53).

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