Monday, 25 November 2013

Pulmonary vascular disease: Antioxidants and Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary vascular disease is defined as a condition of blood flow to the lung’s artery is blocked suddenly due to a blood clot somewhere in the body, including pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, pulmonary edema, etc.
Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema is defined as a condition of fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs of that can lead to difficult of breathing and respiratory failure.
Antioxidants to prevent Pulmonary edema
1. Vitamin D
According to the study by the Boston University Medical Center, Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of deadly cancers, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus(54).
2. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is an essential dietary nutrient for the biosynthesis of collagen and a co-factor in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, L-carnitine, cholesterol, amino acids, and some peptide hormones. The lack of vitamin C causes scurvy, a pathological condition leading to blood vessel fragility and connective tissue damage due to failure in producing collagen, and, finally, to death as result of a general collapse. Vitamin C is potentially involved also in cancer and cardiovascular diseases prevention(55).
3. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E (V(E))
In the study to examine the effects of Se and V(E) supplementation on MeHg-mediated systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant defense, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in an animal model with male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a starch-based casein diet or the same diet supplemented with 1 or 3 mg Se/kg diet and with or without 250 or 750 mg V(E)/kg diet, found that Se and V(E) supplementation may either alleviate or augment the effects of MeHg, depending on their doses and combinations(56).
4. Pterostilbene
Pterostilbene is a phytochemical in the class of Stilbenoids, found abundantly in grapes, blueberries, etc.
a. Cholesterol
In the investigation of whether resveratrol and its three analogues (pterostilbene, piceatannol, and resveratrol trimethyl ether) would activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) isoform, found that the maximal luciferase activity responses to pterostilbene were higher than those obtained with the hypolipidemic drug, ciprofibrate (33910 and 19460 relative luciferase units, respectively), at 100 microM. Hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed with pterostilbene at 25 ppm of the diet showed 29% lower plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 7% higher plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and 14% lower plasma glucose as compared to the control group. The LDL/HDL ratio was also statistically significantly lower for pterostilbene, as compared to results for the control animals, at this diet concentration, according to “Pterostilbene, a new agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-isoform, lowers plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters” by Rimando AM, Nagmani R, Feller DR, Yokoyama W.(57).
b. Atherosclerosis
In the determination of the effect of Pterostilbene (PT) on Vascular endothelial cell (VEC) apoptosis, the main event occurring during the development of atherosclerosis, found that Cotreatment with PT and siRNA of LOX-1 synergistically reduced oxLDL-induced apoptosis in HUVECs. Overexpression of LOX-1 attenuated the protection by PT and suppressed the effects of PT on oxLDL-induced oxidative stress. PT may protect HUVECs against oxLDL-induced apoptosis by downregulating LOX-1-mediated activation through a pathway involving oxidative stress, p53, mitochondria, cytochrome c and caspase protease. PT might be a potential natural anti-apoptotic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis, according to “Pterostilbene protects vascular endothelial cells against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo” by Zhang L, Zhou G, Song W, Tan X, Guo Y, Zhou B, Jing H, Zhao S, Chen L.(58).
5. Astaxanthin
Astaxanthin is a phytochemincal in the class of Xanthophylls, belonging to the group of Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in yeast, krill, shrimp, salmon, lobsters, etc.
a. Cardiovascular health
In the evualation of the an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties effects and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease of Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail, found that No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event, according to “Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease” by Fassett RG, Coombes JS.(59)
b. Antithrombotic and antihypertensive effects
In the examination of the hypothesis that astaxanthin, a red pigment carotenoid found in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture, for its protect on stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) from vascular oxidative damage, hypertension, and cerebral thrombosis, found that the results supported our hypothesis and strongly suggested that the antithrombotic and antihypertensive effects of astaxanthin or vitamin E may be related to an increase in bioavailable NO, possibly mediated by decreased inactivation of NO by reactive oxygen species, according to “Astaxanthin inhibits thrombosis in cerebral vessels of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats” by Sasaki Y, Kobara N, Higashino S, Giddings JC, Yamamoto J.(60)
c. Cholesterol
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight and obese adults in Korea, found that all four biomarkers were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with the placebo group, MDA and ISP were significantly lower, but TAC was significantly higher in the astaxanthin group at 12 weeks. These results suggest that supplementary astaxanthin has positive effects by improving the LDL cholesterol, ApoB, and oxidative stress biomarkers, according to “Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects” by Choi HD, Youn YK, Shin WG.(61).

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