Tuesday, 19 November 2013

Precocious Puberty - Environment Causes

Precocious Puberty
I. Precocious Puberty refers to the sexual and physical characteristics mature occurring at an unusually early age such as before age 7 or 8 in girls and age 9 for boys.

Understand the process of puberty
The process of puberty begins with production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) from the brain, which in turn stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These two hormones again stimulates the ovaries in girls and testicles in boys to produce estrogen and testosterone responsible for the growth and development of girl and male sexual characteristics respectfully.
II.C. Environment Causes of Precocious Puberty
1. Overabundance of men made chemicals
Exposure to men made chemicals can increase the onset of precocious puberty. In a study of “Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting puberty in humans – a review” by Roy, JR; Chakraborty, S; Chakraborty, TR (2009) researchers found that In girls, DDT has been linked to earlier menarche. Dioxin causes abnormal breast development in pre-pubertal girls. BPA has shown to cause PP in pubertal girls. PBB causes earlier menarche, thelarche and earlier pubic hair stage in pubertal girls. PCB's showed a significant delay in puberty in pubertal boys. De-feminization, thelarche, or early secondary breast development are shown in pubertal girls when exposed to phthalate esters. Endosulfan affects pubertal boys by slowing down the timing of reproductive maturation. This article provides a possible structure-function relation of the above mentioned EEDCs which interfere with sexual development during puberty.
In other study of Endocrine disruption via estrogen receptors that participate in nongenomic signaling pathways” by Watson CS, Jeng YJ, Guptarak J., researchers found that xenoestrogens can alter endogenous estrogens' signaling and thereby disrupt normal signaling pathways, leading to malfunctions in many tissue types. Though these xenoestrogen actions occur rapidly via nongenomic signaling pathways,

2. Environment xanoestrogen
Exposure to xanoestrogen such as Bisphenol A can increase the onset of precocious puberty, due to estrogen domination. In a study of Neonatal Exposure to Bisphenol A Alters Reproductive Parameters and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Signaling in Female Rats by Marina Fern├índez, Maria Bianchi, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Carlos Libertun, researchers found that Neonatal exposure to BPA altered reproductive parameters and hypothalamic–pituitary function in female rats. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that neonatal in vivo BPA permanently affects GnRH pulsatility and pituitary GnRH signaling.

3. Growth hormone in dairy production
Commercial beef and pasteurised dairy products consistently have the highest levels of growth hormone and have serious estrogenic and carcinogenic effects, they not only can cause breast cancer but also may enhance the precocious puberty.

4. Etc.

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