Monday, 25 November 2013

Pleural disease – Pleural plaques – The Diet

The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells (mesothelial cells) that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall.
C. Pleural plaques
Pleural plaques is a medical condition as a result of exposure to asbestos that lead to accumulated plagues within the pleural cavity(a). Many diseases such as pneumonia, breast cancer, and heart failure can affect the pleural space.,therefore, it is often a secondary effect of another disease process.
E. Preventions
The only way to prevent pleural plaques and other asbestos-related lung damage is to eliminate asbestos exposure. Diagnosis early such as routine chest radiographs may help to prevent asbesto related lung diseases.According to the study by the UCLA Medical Center, although CT scans can demonstrate abnormalities, there are minimal data suggesting that these findings are of physiologic significance. This observation would be similar to the CT detection of unsuspected pleural plaques on routine chest radiographs in workers or others exposed to asbestos fiber who remain clinically asymptomatic with normal lung function. Further radiographic progression and clinical and/or functional impairment would not be generally expected for localized pleural plaques and/or radiographically negative, 0/1, 1/0, or 1/1 asbestosis. Radiographic progression has infrequently been noted following withdrawal from exposure. Understanding of underlying physiologic mechanisms and attention to the meaning of pathologic-physiologic relationships can help improve the utilization of pulmonary function testing for preventing occupational lung disease(26).
In the study of 86 men with sixty subjects with asbestos-related disorders (asbestosis: 18, diffuse pleural thickening (DPT): 16, pleural plaques (PPs): 26) and twenty six age- and gender-matched normal individuals to assess oxidative stress and lung inflammation in vivo, found that subjects with asbestosis had raised EBC markers of oxidative stress compared with normal controls [8-isoprostane (geometric mean (95% CI) 0.51 (0.17-1.51) vs 0.07 (0.04-0.13) ng/ml, p<0.01); hydrogen peroxide (13.68 (8.63-21.68) vs 5.89 (3.99-8.69) microM, p<0.05), as well as increased EBC total protein (17.27 (10.57-28.23) vs 7.62 (5.13-11.34) microg/ml, p<0.05), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (mean+/-SD) (9.67+/-3.26 vs 7.57+/-1.89ppb; p<0.05). EBC pH was lower in subjects with asbestosis compared with subjects with DPT (7.26+/-0.31 vs 7.53+/-0.24; p<0.05). There were no significant differences in exhaled carbon monoxide, EBC total nitrogen oxides and 3-nitrotyrosine between any of the asbestos-related disorders, or between these and controls (27).
Since in asbestos-related disorders, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress are significantly elevated in subjects with asbestosis compared with healthy individuals but not in pleural diseases, then intake of antioxidants should be helpful.
1. Diet to prevent pleural plague
Green tea, turmeric and grape seek and skin contain powerful natural sources of antioxidants in targeting oxidative stress with antioxidants or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Ac coding to the study by the dietary polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea, catechins/quercetin), have been reported to control nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, regulation of glutathione biosynthesis genes, chromatin remodeling, and hence inflammatory gene expression(27a).
Other study also indicated that Turmeric is known for its multiple health restoring properties, and has been used in treating several diseases including several respiratory disorders. Turmeric is a common spice used in the culinary preparations in South and East Asian countries. The active component of turmeric is curcumin, a polyphenolic phytochemical, with anti-inflammatory, antiamyloid, antiseptic, antitumor, and antioxidative properties(28).

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