B. Pleural effusion
It is a condition of collection of fluid within the pleural cavity as a result of heart failure, bleeding (hemothorax), infections, excessive or decreased fluid volume, etc.
B.6.2. Treatments in Herbal medicine perspective
1. Cordia verbenacea
In the study to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) and some of its active compounds, indicated that treatment with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (300-600mg/kg, p.o.) reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, myeloperoxidase activity and the mouse oedema elicited by carrageenan, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and platelet-activating factor. It also prevented carrageenan-evoked exudation and the neutrophil influx to the rat pleura and the neutrophil migration into carrageenan-stimulated mouse air pouches(105).
The genus Taraxacum is a member of the family Asteraceae, subfamily Cichorioideae, tribe Lactuceae and widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. pharmacologically relevant compounds of Taraxacum characterized so far and of the studies support of its use as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to diuretic, choleretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-coagulatory and prebiotic effects(106).
3. Scutellaria baicalensis, Coptis japonica, Curcuma longa and Poncirus trifoliata
Baicalein, berberine, curcumin and hesperidin are the major components derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, Coptis japonica, Curcuma longa and Poncirus trifoliata, respectively. According to the study by the Chungnam National University, berberine, curcumin and hesperidin can increase mucin release by directly acting on airway mucin-secreting cells and suggest that these agents be further studied for possible use as mild expectorants during the treatment of chronic airway diseases(107).
4. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been used for the treatment of diverse chronic inflammatory diseases including respiratory disease in oriental medicine and its major components, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin – were reported to have various biological effects. According to the study by the Chungnam National University,baicalin and wogonin can slightly increase basal mucin release whereas they can inhibit ATP-induced mucin release, by directly acting on airway mucin-secreting cells. It is suggested that baicalin and wogonin be further investigated for the possible use as mucoregulators during the treatment of chronic airway diseases(108).
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