Sunday, 3 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 9 Health Benefits of Perillyl alcohol

Perillyl alcohol is a phytochemicals in the class of Monoterpenes, found abundantly in citrus oils, caraway, mints, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Breast cancer
In the searching the effective way in treating breast cancer by investigating the activity of a combination of perillyl alcohol (POH), methyl jasmonate (MJ) with cisplatin, found that Combination treatment of POH and MJ blocked cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the addition of cisplatin forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. Apoptotic mechanistic studies indicated that POH and MJ treatment activated tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and this was further increased by the addition of cisplatin. It was also found that mitochondrial membrane potential decreased with POH and MJ treatment; this effect was further enhanced by cisplatin treatment, according to "Perillyl alcohol and methyl jasmonate sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin" by Yeruva L, Hall C, Elegbede JA, Carper SW.(1)

2. Pancreatic cancer
In the development of enhanced single or combinatorial therapies to decrease the pathogenesis of this invariably fatal disease. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a potent cancer gene therapeutic because of its broad-spectrum cancer-specific apoptosis-inducing properties as well as its multipronged indirect antitumor activities,
found that a dietary agent perillyl alcohol (POH) in combination with Ad.mda-7 efficiently reverses the mda-7/IL-24 "protein translational block" by inducing reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in mda-7/IL-24 protein production, growth suppression, and apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibitor and small interfering RNA studies identify xanthine oxidase as a major source of superoxide radical production causing these toxic effects, according to " Mechanism of in vitro pancreatic cancer cell growth inhibition by melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 and perillyl alcohol" by Lebedeva IV, Su ZZ, Vozhilla N, Chatman L, Sarkar D, Dent P, Athar M, Fisher PB.(2)

3. Skin cancer
in the evaluation of preparation and characterization ofa novel poly-lactic glycolic acid (PLGA)-based microparticle formulation of perillyl alcohol (POH) and its efficacy against di-methyl benzo anthracene-induced skin papilloma in Swiss albino mice, found that in vitro efficacy of POH-bearing PLGA microparticles was evaluated by examining their differential cytotoxicity and assessing their ability to inhibit epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A253). The POH-based microparticles when administered to tumor-bearing animals caused greater tumor regression and increased survival rate (∼80%) as compared with the group receiving free form of POH (survival rate 40%), according to "Anticancer efficacy of perillyl alcohol-bearing PLGA microparticles" by Farazuddin M, Sharma B, Khan AA, Joshi B, Owais M.(3)

4. Lipid Membranes
In the assessment of the possible biophysical effects of these compounds on membranes quantitatively, the influence of limonene and its bio-oxidation products on a membrane model composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), found that limonene (1), perillyl alcohol (2), and perillaldehyde (3) partitioned into the DMPC membrane, whereas perillic acid (4) did not. The DSC results demonstrated that all the partitioning compounds strongly perturbed the phase transition of DMPC, whereas no perturbation of the local membrane order was detected by EPR spectroscopy, according to "Influence of the Active Compounds of Perilla frutescens Leaves on Lipid Membranes" by Duelund L, Amiot A, Fillon A, Mouritsen OG.(4)

5. Antioxidant and antiproliferative effects
In the investigation of antioxidant potential of three monoterpenoids (carvone, perillyl alcohol, and α-terpineol), using two methods: DPPH and ORAC and the antiproliferative effect of these monoterpenoids against nine cancerous cell lines performed and compared to limonene and doxorubicin, found that all samples tested had very low antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay, but α-terpineol (2.72μmolTrolox equiv./μmol) could be compared to commercial antioxidants in the ORAC assay. The antiproliferative results obtained encourage future in vivo studies for α-terpineol, since this monoterpenoid presented cytostatic effect against six cell lines, especially for breast adenocarcinoma and chronic myeloid leukemia, in a range of 181-588μM, according to "Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors" by Bicas JL, Neri-Numa IA, Ruiz AL, De Carvalho JE, Pastore GM.(5)

6. Transplant coronary artery disease TCAD prevention
In the study of whether systematical dissection of the prenylation pathway to better define the mechanism behind statin inhibition in chronic allograft rejection in heart transplants, or transplant coronary artery disease (TCAD), found that FPT and GGPT-2 (inhibition) are the key enzymes in the HGM-CoA reductase pathway and most influential in TCAD prevention. TCAD reduction is most closely related to smooth muscle cell migration, but not its anti-inflammatory properties, according to "Prevention of transplant coronary artery disease by prenylation inhibitors" by Stein W, Schrepfer S, Itoh S, Kimura N, Velotta J, Palmer O, Bartos J, Wang X, Robbins RC, Fischbein MP.(6)

7. Oxidative stress
In the investigation of the protective effects of perillyl alcohol (POH) on ethanol-induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats and its probable mechanism, ethanol administration decreased hepatic reduced glutathione content and various antioxidant enzymes activity. TNF-α production and NFκ-B activation was also found to be increased after ethanol administration. POH pre-treatment significantly ameliorates ethanol induced acute liver injury possibly by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, replenishment of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, downregulation of TNF-α as well as NFκ-B, according to "Perillyl alcohol protects against ethanol induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats by inhibiting oxidative stress, NFκ-B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production" by Khan AQ, Nafees S, Sultana S.(7)

8. Non small cell lung cancer
In the investigation of the effects of perillyl alcohol (POH) and its metabolite perillic acid (PA) on the proliferation of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, A549, and H520) cells, found that exposing the cells to an IC50 concentration of POH or PA sensitized the cells to cisplatin and radiation in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that POH and PA in combination therapy may have chemotherapeutic value against NSCLC, according to "Perillyl alcohol and perillic acid induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in non small cell lung cancer cells" by Yeruva L, Pierre KJ, Elegbede A, Wang RC, Carper SW.(8)

9. Etc.

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