Saturday, 2 November 2013

Phytochemicals in Foods - 13 Health Benefits of Ursolic acid

Ursolic acid is a phytochemincal in the subclass of Triterpenoid, belonging to the group of Terpenes found abundantly in apples, basil, bilberries, cranberries, peppermint, lavender, oregano, hawthorn, prunes., etc.

Health Benefits
1. Multi-drug resistance cancers
In the study of the proliferation-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) on multi-drug resistance (MDR) cancer cells in vitro, indicated that Both UA and OA have antitumor effects on cancer cells with MDR, and the optimal effect is shown by UA on colonic cancer cells. Also, UA shows cell apoptosis-inducing effect on SW480, possibly by way of down-regulating the expressions of apoptosis antagonistic proteins, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and surviving, according to "Proliferation-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid on multi-drug resistance cancer cells in vitro" by Shan JZ, Xuan YY, Ruan SQ, Sun M.(1)

2. Skin fibroblast cells
In the observation of how ursolic and oleanolic acids can be used for the purpose of quality control of natural products used in dermatocosmetology as well as of various other therapeutic preparations, showed that Of the two isomeric compounds, UA showed a higher cytotoxic activity against HSF cells than did OA. Our investigations showed that OA, in view of its non-toxic nature, may be used as a supplementary factor for dermal preparations, according to "The effect of ursolic and oleanolic acids on human skin fibroblast cells" by Wójciak-Kosior M, Paduch R, Matysik-Woźniak A, Niedziela P, Donica H.(2)

3. Antibiotic resistance
In the investigation of antibiotic resistance effects of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), among bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), found that Using FICI value estimation and the time-kill method it was demonstrated that in some combinations, the tested compounds acted in synergy to lower the susceptibility of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and L. monocytogenes to ampicillin and oxacillin, but no synergy was observed for P. aeruginosa, according to "Modulation of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens by oleanolic acid and ursolic acid" by Kurek A, Nadkowska P, Pliszka S, Wolska KI.(3)

4. Cytotoxic activites
In the evaluation of the anti-proliferative capability of the derivatives of C-3 and C-28 positions of ursolic acid (UA). against HepG2, AGS, HT-29 and PC-3 cells by the MTT assay, showed the cytotoxic capacity of the compounds was: Group I
5. Hepatocellular carcinoma
In the study of the inhibitory effect and mechanisms of UA on the human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721, indicated that the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells was significantly inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner after UA treatment. UA induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The DNA microarray analysis indicated that 64 genes were found to be markedly up- or down-expressed, including GDF15, SOD2, ATF3, and fos, according to "Ursolic acid induces human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 apoptosis via p53-dependent pathway" by Yu YX, Gu ZL, Yin JL, Chou WH, Kwok CY, Qin ZH, Liang ZQ.(5)

6. Bladder cancer
In the investigation of Ursolic acid (UA) anti-tumor properties against bladder cancer, found that the ceramide level was increased after UA treatment in T24 cells, and UA-induced AMPK activation and T24 cell apoptosis were inhibited by ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, and was enhanced by exogenously adding cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6), suggesting that ceramide might serve as an upstream signal for AMPK activation. Further, activation of AMPK by UA promoted c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, but inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling to cause survivin down-regulation, according to " Ursolic acid-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells" by Zheng QY, Yao C, Jin F, Zhang Y, Zhang GH.(6)

7. Anti cancers
In the investigation of QSAR models for predicting the activities of ursolic acid analogs against human lung (A-549) and CNS (SF-295) cancer cell lines, indicated that The QSAR study indicated that the LUMO energy, ring count, and solvent-accessible surface area were strongly correlated with anticancer activity. Similarly, the QSAR model for cytotoxic activity against the human CNS cancer cell line (SF-295) also showed a high correlation (r (2) = 0.99 and rCV(2) = 0.96), and indicated that dipole vector and solvent-accessible surface area were strongly correlated with activity. Ursolic acid analogs that were predicted to be active against these cancer cell lines by the QSAR models were semisynthesized and characterized on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic data, and were then tested in vitro against the human lung (A-549) and CNS (SF-295) cancer cell lines. The experimental results obtained agreed well with the predicted values, according to "Pharmacophore, QSAR, and ADME based semisynthesis and in vitro evaluation of ursolic acid analogs for anticancer activity" by Kalani K, Yadav DK, Khan F, Srivastava SK, Suri N.(7)

8. Hippocrates, "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food"
In the determination of the traditional medicine and diet on mankind through the ages for prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases, found that suggests that chronic inflammation mediates most chronic diseases, including cancer. More than other transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and STAT3 have emerged as major regulators of inflammation, cellular transformation, and tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, agents ( avicins, betulinic acid, boswellic acid, celastrol, diosgenin, madecassic acid, maslinic acid, momordin, saikosaponins, platycodon, pristimerin, ursolic acid, and withanolide) that can inhibit NF-κB and STAT3 activation pathways have the potential to both prevent and treat cancer, according to "Targeting inflammatory pathways by triterpenoids for prevention and treatment of cancer" by Yadav VR, Prasad S, Sung B, Kannappan R, Aggarwal BB.(8)

9. Photoprotection
Inn the evaluation of photoprotective effects of against UVAR of triterpenoids, indicated that natural material-derived triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid can abrogate UVA-induced gene expression by raft stabilization. This effect depends on the structure of the molecule, because its isomer ursolic acid also integrates within the rafts without inhibiting ceramide formation and upregulation of gene expression, according to "Photoprotection against UVAR: effective triterpenoids require a lipid raft stabilizing chemical structure" by Bayer M, Proksch P, Felsner I, Brenden H, Kohne Z, Walli R, Duong TN, Götz C, Krutmann J, Grether-Beck S.(9)

10. Cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects
In the study of the cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of four triterpenoid derivatives, namely oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA), and uvaol (UV), isolated from the leaves of African wild olive (Olea europaea, subsp. africana) as well as methyl maslinate (MM) isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea (Cape cultivar), found that OA and UV isolated from wild African olive leaves, or crude extract containing all components, can provide a cheap and accessible source of additive to conventional treatment of hypertension, complicated by stenocardia and cardiac failure, according to "Cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids, methyl maslinate and uvaol" by Somova LI, Shode FO, Mipando M.(10)

11. Etc.

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