Saturday, 23 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Pharynx (Throat) Cancer

Pharynx
Pharynx is the curve area of the back of the mouth, located between esophagus and trachea connecting the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx. Its functions is to provide a passageway for respiratory and digestive tracts. In the United States in 2010 alone, according to National cancer Institute, there were 12,660 new cases of pharyngeal cancer, resulting in deaths of 2,410 patients

Pharynx Cancer
or pharyngeal cancer
Pharynx Cancer is originated in tissue of the pharynx and classified
1. The nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose)
Cancer of the pharyngeal most commonly begins with malignant cells that line the nasopharynx, including nasal passages and auditory tubes join the remainder of the upper respiratory tract.
2. The oropharynx (the middle part of the pharynx)
Cancer of the oropharynx also begins with the malignant cells that line the oropharynx, including the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate.
3. The hypopharynx (the bottom part of the pharynx)
Cancer of the hypopharynx most commonly begins with the malignant squamous cell that line the hypopharynx where the area of the larynx and esophagus meet. 90% of oropharyngeal neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma.

Types of Foods to prevent and treat Pharynx Cancer or pharyngeal cancer
1.  Green tea
In a study of a total of 20,550 men and 29,671 women aged 40-79 years, without any history of oral and pharyngeal cancer showed that for women, the HRs of oral cancer for green tea consumption of 1-2, 3-4, and 5 or more cups per day were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.10-2.68), 0.60 (95% CI: 0.17-2.10), and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.09-1.07), respectively, compared with those who drank less than one cup per day (p for trend, 0.08). For men, no such trends were observed(1).

2. Brussel sprouts, beets and broccoli
Folate found abundantly in Brussel sprouts, beets and broccoli. In the-control study, conducted in Italy and French-speaking Switzerland, included 749 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, and 1772 hospital controls with acute, non-neoplastic conditions, indicated that folate have exerted a protective role of folate against oral and pharyngeal carcinogenesis. Compared with low folate intake, a consistent reduction in risk was already observed from intermediate levels of intake, suggesting that cancer risk may be related to relative folate deficiency(2).

3. Diet diversity
In the study of 805 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, and controls of 2,081 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic diseases, unrelated to tobacco or alcohol consumption, indicated that a significant inverse association was observed with total diet diversity. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), adjusted for education, tobacco and alcohol, was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.61-0.98) for subjects in the highest tertile of diversity. Inverse relations were found also for diversity within vegetables (OR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.78) and fruits (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.53-0.86)(3).

4.  Turmeric
In the study to investigate the mechanism underlying the curcumin-induced apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line NCE cells, indicated that Several evidences of apoptosis were obtained from curcumin-treated NCE cells by acridine orange and ethidium bromide stains, ultrastructure identification, DNA fragmentation assay and TUNEL staining. And the mean TUNEL-positive rates increased significantly at the 3 different time points (12 h, 24 h and 48 h; 25.6%, 40.3% and 54.5%, respectively). In the curcumin-treated-groups, delta psi m altered significantly and the positive rates increased in a time-dependent manner. At the 3 different time points, the mean positive rates were 26.8%, 42.3% and 68.2%, respectively. When caspase-3 activity was detected, 80.5% cells presented proteases activities after 12 h incubation with curcumin. Western Blot analysis showed that cytoplasmic cytochrome C increased significantly after incubation with curcumin. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analysis showed that curcumin could up-regulate the Fas expression in time-depended manner , the positive rates of Fas protein increased from 33.6% to 89.9%(4).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17606381
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14581278 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18622637

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