Friday, 22 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Obesity

Obesity is defined as a medical condition of excess body fat has accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

Types of food to prevent and treat Obesity
1. Green tea
In the study to to investigate the antiobesity effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diet-induced obese mice, showed that green tea EGCG effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and ameliorates plasma lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. These effects might be at least partially mediated via regulation of the expression of multiple genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, beta-oxidation and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue(1).

2. Organic Soy
In the study of Role of dietary soy protein in obesity, researchers at the George Washington University Medical Center, indicated that there were an increasing body of literature suggests that soy protein and its isoflavones may have a beneficial role in obesity. Several nutritional intervention studies in animals and humans indicate that consumption of soy protein reduces body weight and fat mass in addition to lowering plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In animal models of obesity, soy protein ingestion limits or reduces body fat accumulation and improves insulin resistance, the hallmark of human obesity. In obese humans, dietary soy protein also reduces body weight and body fat mass in addition to reducing plasma lipids(2).

3. Fish oil
In the study to establish whether there is a correlation between basal CoQ10 plasma concentration and the ratio of lipid parameters to CoQ10 in obese children, showed that he lowest correlation was between plasma concentration of CoQ10-OX and the ratio of LDL Chol/CoQ10 , as well as between CoQ10-OX and the ratio of TAG/CoQ10 in obese children.Conclusion: An increase of the ratios of lipid parameters to CoQ10 is associated with child obesity and could be used as biomarkers of early complications in the development of obesity in children(3).

4. Flax seed
In the study to evaluate the beneficial effects of soy protein and flaxseed meal on hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis associated with obesity and diabetes. We compared the effects of dietary soy protein and flaxseed meal with that of casein on plasma and liver lipids in a genetic model of obesity, found that
he marked hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of flaxseed meal may have important therapeutic implications in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and deserve further study in humans with these disorders. Flaxseed meal supplementation may provide a new therapeutic strategy to reduce hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver(4).

5. Turmeric
In the study to investigate the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice, found that in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain(5).

6. Etc.
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390166
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17396158
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22380497
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12672712
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19297423

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