Tuesday, 19 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Lung cancer (Non-small-cell and small cell lung cancer)

Phytochemials are defined as a group of chemical compound found naturally in plants, including fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, etc.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells growing and multiplying disordered and uncontrollable way in our body, have become progressively worse and damaged other healthy tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death.
Food intake can help to prevent and treat cancers. Many studies have proven that they can because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmaceutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
Many studies have proven that they can treat diseases and cancers because of certain phytochemicals, but for what ever reason, there are either no clinical trials follow through or the studies can not make to stage of clinical trials. Do not expect the pharmaceutical or foods industrial companies to pay for the researches, as the discovery of the phytochemicals to cure diseases and cancers can only dampen the profits of both industries as phytochemicals can not be patented.
Lung is a vital organ of the human being, located near the backbone on either side of the heart with functions of inhaling oxygen from the air then transporting them to the bloodstream to nourish the body cells need and exhaling carbondioxide from the bloodstream.

Lung cancer is defined as a condition of the abnormal growth of the cells in the lung's tissue. Most common form of primary lung cancers are derived from epithelial cells. In Us, Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, causing 158,683 people deaths, including 88,329 men and 70,354 women, according to 2007 statistic.

Types of lung cancer
A. Non small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually grows and spreads methodically and predictably.Most common types of lung cancers include
1. Squamous-cell carcinoma often found in an outer area of the lung,
2. Large-cell carcinoma found in the center of the lung by an air tube
3. Adenocarcinoma found in any part of the lung.


B. Small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer is a fast-growing type of lung cancer, it can spread to distant parts of the body in a relatively early stage. Most common types of small cell lung cancer include
1. Small cell carcinoma in which the cells are small, round and resemble oats.
2. Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma in which malignant tumor found in combining of components of small cell lung carcinoma with large cell lung carcinoma.
3. Combined small cell carcinoma in which malignant tumor found in combining of a component of small cell lung carcinoma with components of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Types of food to prevent and treat lung cancer
1. Orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi
Cryptoxanthin is a phytochemincal of Yellow pigments in the class of Xanthophylls , belonging to the group of Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi, etc. In the study to assess the roles of dietary antioxidants in the development of lung cancer. Between April 1993 and December 1998, 63,257 Chinese men and women ages 45-74 years in Singapore participated in a prospective study of diet and cancer, found that A Singapore food composition database was used to estimate intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and folate in study subjects. During the first 8 years of follow-up, 482 lung cancer cases occurred among cohort members. High levels of dietary beta-cryptoxanthin were associated with reduced risk of lung cancer(1)

2. Grapes, orange, wolfberry
In the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer, 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986 returned a questionnaire including a 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 939 male lung cancer cases were registered showed that Protective effects on lung cancer incidence were found for lutein + zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, folate, and vitamin C(2).

3. Grapes and berries
In the examination of study the mechanism of myricetin and its effect on the HepG-2 cell line found that Myricetin significantly inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of HepG-2 in a dose-dependent manner, which is accompanied with G2/M and S phase arrest. In addition, myricetin also increases the activation of caspase 3,9 and results in a depolarization and delta psi m collapse in a dose-dependent manner, according to "[Studies on mechanism of myricetin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells].[Article in Chinese]" by Zhang X, Ling Y, Yu H, Ji Y.(3)

4.  Algae and tomatoes
in the analyzing the associations between dietary beta-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin A, serum beta-carotene, and serum retinol and the lung cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers conducted in southwestern Finland between 1985 and 1993, showed that  Consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (relative risk = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.86, highest vs. lowest quintile). Lower risks of lung cancer were observed for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of lycopene (28%), lutein/zeaxanthin (17%), beta-cryptoxanthin (15%), total carotenoids (16%), serum beta-carotene (19%), and serum retinol (27%). These findings suggest that high fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly a diet rich in carotenoids, tomatoes, and tomato-based products, may reduce the risk of lung cancer.(4).

Made From Fresh Fruits And Vegetable Recipes 
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Chinese Secrets To Fatty Liver And Obesity Reversal
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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14504200
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10794479 
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20617691
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12226001

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