Friday, 22 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) /Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of which can lead to the progression of weakened immune system casues of infectous diseases and cancers.

Types of food to prevent and treat Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 
1. Green tea
In thye study to investigate the effects of EGCG on Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation and potential mechanisms by which EGCG inhibited activation of NF-κB pathway, found that EGCG supplementation significantly improved the changes associated with Tat-induced oxidative stress by increasing nuclear levels of Nrf2, decreasing levels of NF-κB and ROS production. EGCG reversed Tat-mediated AKT activation and AMPK inhibition in MAGI cells. EGCG inhibited Tat-induced LTR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner and Nrf2 signaling pathway may be the primary target for prevention of Tat-induced HIV-1 transactivation by EGCG, and EGCG also reduce NF-κB activation by inhibiting AKT signaling pathway and activating AMPK signaling pathway(1).

2. Bazil nut
Selenium plays a vital role in enhancing the immune status of the individual, researchers at Government Rajaji Hospital found that Low serum selenium levels are associated with increased risk of pulmonary infection caused by mycobacteria(2). Others suggested that Micronutrient interventions that aim to improve CD4 cell count, decrease opportunistic infections, decrease HIV viral load, and ultimately delay initiation of more costly ART may be beneficial, particularly in resource-constrained settings, such as sub-Saharan Africa. Additional trials are needed to determine if micro-supplementation can delay the need for more costly ART among HIV-infected patients. If shown to be effective, selenium supplementation may be of public health importance to HIV-infected populations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-constrained settings(2a).

3. Caocao
In the study of Anti-HIV and immunomodulation activities of cacao mass lignin-carbohydrate complex, Dr. and the research team at the Meikai University School of Dentistry, showed that Cacao mass LCC and LPS synergistically stimulated iNOS protein expression, suggesting a different point of action. Cacao mass LCC induced tumour necrosis factor-α production markedly less than LPS, and did not induce interleukin-1β, interferon-α or interferon-γ. ESR spectroscopy showed that cacao mass LCC, but not LPS, scavenged NO produced from NOC-7.(3)

4. Skin and seed of grapes and red wine
In the study of Resveratrol is a polyphenolic plant-derived antioxidant abundantly found in certain grapes, roots, berries, peanuts and red wine, indicated that using primary human cardiomyocytes, evaluated the effects of AZT and pre-treatment with resveratrol on mitochondrial ROS generation and the cell death pathways. AZT induced concentration-dependent cell death, involving both caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation, coupled with increased mitochondrial ROS generation in human cardiomyocytes(4).

5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480519
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22372360
(2a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838913
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21471539
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21461578

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