Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease, is defined as a chronic condition of liquid stomach acid refluxing back up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn. According to the study of "Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease." by DeVault KR, Castell DO; American College of Gastroenterology, GERD is defined as symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus.


Types of food to prevent and treat Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
1. Peppermint
According to the study of A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.)." by McKay DL, Blumberg JB. posted in , researchers wrote that In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system... However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones(1).


2.  Ginger
Gingerole, is also known as gingerol, a phytochemical of Flavonoids (polyphenols) found in fresh ginger and in variety of other plants. Ginger has been used for thousands of years to enhance the function of digestive system and treat stomach distress including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and in digestion, acid reflux, motion sickness, dyspepsia, etc. due to its due to its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. According to the study of " Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori." by Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Yun GS, Lu ZZ, Stoia A., researchers found that The methanol extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of all 19 strains in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 6.25-50 micrograms/ml. One fraction of the crude extract, containing the gingerols, was active and inhibited the growth of all HP strains with an MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 micrograms/ml and with significant activity against the CagA+ strains(2). Other research of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. and it effects in Nausea and Vomiting found that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) receptors. Serotonergic 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds, according to "Effects of ginger constituents on the gastrointestinal tract: role of cholinergic M3 and serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors" by Pertz HH, Lehmann J, Roth-Ehrang R, Elz S.(3)

3. Aloe Vera Juice
According to the article of "Effect Of Orally Consumed Aloe Vera Juice On Gastrointestinal Function In Normal Humans, excerpts By Jeffrey Bland, Ph.D. (Linus Pauling Institute of Science & Medicine) involved ten healthy subjects - five men (median age: 42; standard deviation: 14 years), and five women (median age: 32; standard deviation: 5 years) - engaged in a semicontrolled Aloe vera juice oral supplementation study protocol., researchers found that The function of Aloe vera juice in promoting, proper gastrointestinal function, based upon the information from this preliminary study, may be to regulate gastrointestinal pH while improving gastrointestinal motility, increasing stool specific gravity, and reducing populations of certain fecal micro-organisms, including yeast(4). 

4. Mastic gum
According to the article of "Strategies to Protect Against Potential Bone-Destroying Effects"By Chris D. Meletis, ND, the author wrote that While much of the research on mastic gum revolves around its ability to support the health of patients with ulcers and its ability to inhibit the bacteria H. pylori, clinically it has been equally useful in patients with GERD and acid reflux.

5. Etc.
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 Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16767798
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14666666
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305447
(3) http://www.desertharvest.com/physicians/documents/DH127.pdf

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