Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Fibroids

Fibroids also known as uterine fibroids, is defined as a condition of irregular cell growth of  non cancerous tumor from the muscle layers of the uterus

Types of food to prevent and treat fibroids
1.  Green tea
In the study to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on rat leiomyoma (ELT3) cells in vitro and in a nude mice model, found that Inhibitory effect of EGCG (200 micromol/L) on ELT3 cells was observed after 24 hours of treatment (P < .05). At > or = 50 micromol/L, EGCG significantly decreased PCNA and Cdk4 protein levels (P < .05). In vivo, EGCG treatment dramatically reduced the volume and weight of tumors at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment (P < .05). The PCNA and Cdk4 protein levels were significantly reduced in the EGCG-treated group (P < .05)(1). Others suggested that the tumors in the EGCG fed birds were smaller than those found in the control birds (P = .001). Serum and liver malondialdehyde and TNF-alpha concentrations decreased (P = .001) with EGCG supplementation. The results indicate that dietary supplementation with EGCG reduces the incidence and size of spontaneously occurring leiomyoma of the oviduct in Japanese quail. Clinical trials should be conducted to investigate the efficacy of EGCG supplementation in the prevention and treatment of uterine leiomyoma in humans(2).

2. Tomato and carrot
In the study to evaluate the carotenoid intake may reduce the risk of diagnosed uterine leiomyoma (UL), showed that total lycopene intake was not associated with diagnosed UL risk. Intake of beta-carotene was associated with slightly increased risks of diagnosed UL; this association was restricted to current smokers (for highest vs lowest quintile, relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.76; P(trend) = .003)(3).

3. Turmeric
Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynaecological benign tumour and greatly affect reproductive health and wellbeing. Curcumin, a well-known component of turmeric, has been reported to prevent various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and obesity. Researchers at Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, suggested that curcumin significantly inhibited ELT-3 cell proliferation. PPARγ was expressed in ELT-3 cells and curcumin acted as a PPARγ ligand. This inhibitory effect of curcumin was attenuated by the treatment of cells with PPARγ antagonist(4).

4. Soy
Genistein is a soy-derived phytoestrogen. In the study to  investigated the siginificant inhibitory effect of genistein on estradiol (E(2))-induced leiomyoma cells proliferation, indicated that PPARgamma was expressed in ELT-3 cells and genistein acted as PPARgamma ligand. This inhibitory effect of genistein was attenuated by the treatment of cells with PPARgamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) or GW9662 and suggested that the repressive effect of genistein on E(2)-induced ELT-3 cell proliferation is through the activation of PPARgamma. Genistein may be useful as an alternative therapy for leiomyoma(5).

5. Flaxseed
In the study to evaluate the relation between uterine fibroid risk and phytoestrogen exposure, showed that
a modest inverse association between lignan excretion and uterine fibroid risk. Whether this relation represents an effect of lignans per se or of other constituents of lignan-containing foods on the development of uterine fibroids remains to be determined. No association was found between isoflavone excretion and uterine fibroids; however, the intake of soy foods, the primary source of isoflavones, was low in this population(6).

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