Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Duodenal ulcers

 Duodenal ulcers, a type of peptic ulcer is defined as a condition of a localized tissue erosion in the lining  the duodenum as a result of bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in most cases. According to the study by Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel, fasting gastrin and pepsinogen-I and -II concentrations were significantly higher in H pylori positive compared with H pylori negative subjects. Neither age nor sex affected basal gastrin and pepsinogen concentrations in H pylori negative subjects. Fasting gastrin, pepsinogen-I and -II concentrations in serum samples were similar in H pylori positive persons with no symptoms and those with duodenal ulcers suggesting that similar mechanisms are involved in increasing plasma concentrations of these variables in both populations. Hypergastrinaemia and hyperpepsinogenaemia are therefore probably secondary to active H pylori.
D. Preventions
D.3. Phytochemicals to prevent Duodenal ulcers
Plants and phyto­constituents are the better choice to treat diseases than the allopathic drugs. Most of the drugs used in primitive medicine were originated from plants and are the earliest and principal natural source of medicines. The drugs from plants are fairly innocuous and relatively free from toxic effects(22).
1. Fructans
Fructans found abundantly in onion, are small carbohydrate molecules that help maintain gastrointestinal health by sustaining beneficial bacteria(23).
2. Phenols
Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection(24). Other indicated that the antimicrobial activity was greater in extract mixtures than in individual extracts of each species. The results also indicate that the synergistic contribution of oregano and cranberry phenolics may be more important for inhibition than any species-specific phenolic concentration(25).
3. Anthocyanins
Edible berries, a potential source of natural anthocyanin antioxidants, have demonstrated a broad spectrum of biomedical functions. In the study by InterHealth Research Center, showed that OptiBerry exhibits high antioxidant efficacy as shown by its high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, novel antiangiogenic and antiatherosclerotic activities, and potential cytotoxicity towards Helicobacter pylori, a noxious pathogen responsible for various gastrointestinal disorders including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, as compared to individual berry extracts. OptiBerry also significantly inhibited basal MCP-1 and inducible NF-kappabeta transcriptions as well as the inflammatory biomarker IL-8, and significantly reduced the ability to form hemangioma and markedly decreased EOMA cell-induced tumor growth in an in vivo model(26).
4. Triterpenes
In study of the extracted isolation of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae): taraxerol, alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, betulin and betulinic acid from the leaves, as well as trimethoxy ellagic acid from the fruitshe extracts of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae), found that E. umbelliflora leaves display gastro-protective activity, as demonstrated by significant inhibition of ulcer formation in the different models. The results suggest that the gastroprotective activity may be attributed, at least in part, to the triterpenes(27).
5. Etc.
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(22) http://onions-usa.org/img/site_specific/uploads/phytochemical_brochure.pdf 
(23) http://onions-usa.org/img/site_specific/uploads/phytochemical_brochure.pdf 
(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21966156
(25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16332847
(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17533652
(27) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19731591

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