Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Diabetes

Diabetes is defined as a result of insufficient insulin entering the bloodstream to regulate the glucose. It is either caused by cells in the pancreas dying off or receptor sites clogged up by fat and cholesterol.

Types of food to prevent and treat diabetes
1. Cinnamon
in the elucidation of the mechanisms by which p-Methoxycinnamic acid (p-MCA), a cinnamic acid increases [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. p-MCA (100 μM) increased [Ca2+]i in INS-1 cells, found that p-MCA enhanced glucose-, glibenclamide-induced insulin secretion whereas it also potentiated the increase in insulin secretion induced by arginine, and Bay K 8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel agonist. Taken together, our results suggest that p-MCA stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by increasing Ca2+ influx via the L-type Ca2+ channels, but not through the closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, according to "Mechanisms of p-methoxycinnamic acid-induced increase in insulin secretion" by Adisakwattana S, Hsu WH, Yibchok-anun S.(1)

2. Bitter melon
In the study of  Sialic acid changes in NIDDM patients, following bitter melon (55 ml/24h) and rosiglitazone (4 mg/24h) treatment in a total of 25 patients of both sexes, found that bitter melon and rosiglitazone treatment revealed no significant difference but the study showed that bitter melon could be more effective in the management of diabetes and its related complications as compared to rosiglitazone(2).

3. Garlic
In the study to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic effects of garlic in type 2 diabetic patients, showed that combination of garlic with typical antidiabetic remedy has shown to improve glycemic control in addition to antihyperlipidemic activity. Garlic may be a good addition in the management of patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia(3).

4. Onion
In the study of the effect of feeding 15 mg% capsaicin diet or 3% freeze dried onion powder containing diet were examined in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection, found that Significant decrease in blood phospholipids and triglycerides also brought about by dietary onion. Hepatic cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids which were elevated under diabetic condition were countered significantly by dietary onion. Dietary capsaicin did not have any significant influence on any of the parameters tested in diabetic rats. Thus, the study reveals that onion feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic condition, probably because of its hypoglycemic as well as hypocholesterolemic effect(4).

5. Turmeric
In the evaluation of the effect of feeding 0.5% curcumin diet or 1% cholesterol diet  in albino rats rendered diabetic with streptozotocin injection, indicated that curcumin feeding improves the metabolic status in diabetic conditions, despite no effect on hyperglycemic status or the body weights. The mechanism by which curcumin improves this situation is probably by virtue of its hypocholesterolemic influence, antioxidant nature and free radical scavenging property(5).

6. Etc.
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