Thursday, 21 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that makes it hard to breathe due to production of large amounts of mucus as a result of long term smoking, in general.

Types of food to prevent and treat Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
1. Neotropical blueberry and barley leaves
In the study of four flavone C-glycosides, isoorientin (1), orientin (2), vitexin (3), and isovitexin (4), isolated from the neotropical blueberry,  using antioxidant activity-guided fractionation, found that he four flavone C-glycosides exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, with compounds 1, 3, and 4 having the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100 μg/ml(1).

2. Turmeric
Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. In the study of Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium, researchers found that the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation(2).

3. Oats, sweet corn and rice
Oats, sweet corn and rice contain measurable amounts of melatonin. In recent studies show that, α, β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein in CS induces the production of interleukin (IL)-8, which is known to be related to bronchitis, rhinitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and asthma. In addition, lung and pulmonary fibroblasts secrete IL-8, which has a chemotactic effect on leukocytes, and which in turn, play a critical role in lung inflammation. Acrolein-induced IL-8 production was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in HPFs, and that melatonin suppressed IL-8 production in HPFs. These results suggest that melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 production via ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal inhibition in HPFs(3).

4. Grape skin
In the study of the effects of grape skin in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), showed that alteration of the oxidant-antioxidant balance is important in the pathogenesis of CS-induced ALI and suggests lung protective effects of GSE treatment in the mouse(4).

5. Grape skin, seed and red wine
In the study to investigate the effect of dexamethasone versus resveratrol on the release of COPD-related inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1) and matrix-metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) from alveolar macrophages exposed to gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), found that resveratrol almost completely reduced the release of all cytokines and MMP-9 without significant differences between the cohorts. Our data provide evidence for a corticosteroid resistance of alveolar macrophage-dependent inflammatory responses induced by gram-negative bacteria in COPD and thus question the utility of corticosteroids in COPD therapy. Instead, resveratrol may prove an alternative(5).

6. Etc.
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