Friday, 22 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Chronic Kidney disease

Chronic Kidney disease is  defined as a condition of the progression loss of kidney function over period of many years. Stage of chronic kidney disease according to the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQ).

Stages                              Description                                                      GFR*
1.             Signs of mild kidney disease but with normal or better GFR      greater than 90%
2.             Mild kidney disease with reduced GFR                                           60-89%
3.             Moderate chronic renal insufficiency                                               30-59%
4.             Severe chronic renal insufficiency                                                   15-29%
5.             End-stage renal failure                                                                     less than 15%
*GFR is given in ml/min/1.73 m2

Types of foods to prevent and treat chronic kidney diseases
1. Honey
Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. In the study of Honey: a novel antioxidant, researchers found that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases(1).

2. Kombu 
Kombu is a popular seafood and medicinal plant in China. In the study to exhibita new mechanism of fucoidan derivatives on CKD rats,  found that the mechanism of fucoidan derivatives on the CKD rats had relationship with their antioxidant activities, the samples which could enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the LPO level could alleviate the symptom of CKD(2).

3. Peanuts and bean
In the study to investigate  whether oxidative stress or a relative deficit of l-arginine plays a role in reducing cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Eight patients with stage 3-4 CKD and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were instrumented with four microdialysis (MD) fibers for the local delivery of 1) Ringers solution (R), 2) 20 mM ascorbic acid (AA), 3) 10 mM l-arginine (l-Arg), and 4) 10 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Red blood cell (RBC) flux was measured via laser Doppler flowmetry, showed that cutaneous microvascular function is impaired in stage 3-4 CKD and that oxidative stress and a deficit of l-arginine play a role in this impairment(3).

4. Flax seed or fish oil
In the study to elucidate whether PUFAs derived from plant or marine oils could have beneficial effects on the progression of experimental chronic renal failure (CRF), indicated that fter 30 days, we observed lower levels of sCr in the groups supplemented with PUFA when compared with the control group (FO: 0.92 ± 0.13; FXO: 1.06 ± 0.28; SO: 1.32 ± 0.47 mg/dL) and significantly slower variations of sCr (ΔsCr) in the groups treated with PUFAs (FO = 0.35 ± 0.16; FXO = 0.47 ± 0.31; OS = 0.72 ± 0.43; mg/dL, P = 0.041). Similarly, the CLcr of both of the groups that received PUFAs was significantly slower than the rats in the control group (FO: 0.45 ± 0.15; FXO: 0.60 ± 0.09; SO: 0.28 ± 0.06 mL/min/day; P = 0.01). The rats that received PUFA supplements also presented significantly less histological lesions compared with the control group(4).

5. Etc.
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