D.2. Phytochemicals to prevent benign lung tumors
In the study to review data from epidemiological and preclinical studies addressing the potential benefits of diets based on flavonoids for cancer prevention, found that flavonoids are subdivided into subclasses including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and isoflavones. Epidemiological studies suggest dietary intake of flavonoids may reduce the risk of tumors of the breast, colon, lung, prostate, and pancreas. However, some studies have reported inconclusive or even harmful associations. A major challenge in the interpretation of epidemiological studies is that most of the data originate from case-control studies and retrospective acquisition of flavonoid intake. Differences in agricultural, sociodemographics, and lifestyle factors contribute to the heterogeneity in the intake of flavonoids among populations residing in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Dose and timing of exposure may influence the anticancer response to flavonoid-rich diets(22). Other study found that in vitro work has concentrated on the direct and indirect actions of flavonoids on tumor cells, and has found a variety of anticancer effects such as cell growth and kinase activity inhibition, apoptosis induction, suppression of the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases and of tumor invasive behavior(23).
2. Triterpenoids and rexinoids
In the study to test the members of two noncytotoxic classes of drugs, synthetic oleanane triterpenoids and rexinoids, both as individual agents and in combination, for the prevention and treatment of carcinogenesis in a highly relevant animal model of lung cancer, found that triterpenoids and rexinoids are multifunctional, well-tolerated drugs that target different signaling pathways and are thus highly effective for prevention and treatment of experimental lung cancer(24).
Glyceollins are a novel class of soybean phytoalexins with potential cancer-preventive and antiestrogenic effects. According to the study by the School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, glyceollins, elicited ingredients of soy source, target the signaling pathways mediated by VEGF or bFGF, providing new perspectives into potential therapeutics for preventing and treating hypervascularized diseases including cancer(25).
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