Monday, 18 November 2013

Phytochemicals and Anemia

It is hard to believe that America, a country with one of the highest standard of living in the world having over 20 million people with the disease of anemia caused by unhealthy diet, and nutritional deficiency with protein and fat intake 30% more than any other country in the world. Most people understand that anemia is caused by iron deficiency in the bloodstream, but in reality anemia is characterized by deficiency in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells diminishing the ability of the blood to transport oxygen to our cells and to remove carbon dioxide.
Types of Food to Prevent and treat anemia 
1. Spinach
In the study to evaluate Bioavailability of total iron from meat, spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and meat-spinach mixtures by anaemic and non-anaemic rats with the initial haemoglobin levels of severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic rats were 63, 88 and 113 g/l, indicated that the Fe level in diets was about 30 mg/kg. All other nutrients equalled or exceeded the requirement of the growing rat. 3. The spinach Fe was well utilized by the rats with average HRE of 0.41, 0.53 and 0.36, and apparent Fe absorptions averaging 0.48, 0.59 and 0.37 for the severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic animals respectively. 4. Beef Fe was efficiently used by rats as reported by others. Average HRE were 0.42, 0.51 and 0.44, and average apparent Fe absorptions were 0.44, 0.47 and 0.46 for the severely anaemic, mildly anaemic and non-anaemic rats respectively(1)

2. Rice
In the study to to increase the iron content in rice endosperm and to improve its absorption in the human intestine by means of genetic engineering, by introducing a ferritin gene from Phaseolus vulgaris into rice grains. To increase iron bioavailability, by introducing a thermo-tolerant phytase from Aspergillus fumigatus into the rice endosperm showed that with higher iron content, rich in phytase and cysteine-peptide has a great potential to substantially improve iron nutrition in those populations where iron deficiency is so widely spread(2).

3. Garlic
In the study to evaluate he anti-oxidant effect of aged garlic extract (AGE)on sickle red blood cells (RBC), found that  there is a significant anti-oxidant activity of AGE on sickle RBC. AGE may be further evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate complications of sickle cell anemia(3).

4. Molasses
In the study to investigate the absorption of iron from grape molasses (GM) and ferrous sulfate (FS) using the post-absorptive serum iron increase method (non-radioactive) involved 56 subjects, aged 6-36 months. Group I consisted of 30 subjects with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and group II, 26 non-anemic subjects, indicated that In the group with IDA, the mean after-test SI value in FS-given infants was higher and the mean TIBC value lower than those of GM-given infants (p < 0.05). However, in the non-anemic group, there was no significant difference in the mean after-test SI and TIBC values in either GM- or FS-given infants (p > 0.05). The mean increase of serum iron in GM-given infants with IDA was 27.0 +/- 13.4 micrograms/ dl and in FS-given infants, 60.6 +/- 17.0 micrograms/dl (p < 0.05). In the non-anemic group, the mean increase of serum iron of GM-given infants was 23.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/dl, and that of FS-given infants, 23.8 +/- 10.0 micrograms/dl (p > 0.05). We determined that in non-anemic subjects, the absorption of iron from GM was comparable to that from FS. Furthermore, we believe that grape molasses is an effective iron source in preventing iron deficiency anemia in infancy(4)

5. Liver and apricot
In the study to evaluate  a liver extract No. 343, N.N.R. known to be fully potent in pernicious anemia shows but 10 to 20 per cent of the potency of whole liver feeding in severe continuous secondary anemia due to bleeding in dogs, indicated that Supplementing this liver extract with whole bile does not modify the reaction. Supplementing this liver extract with liver ash or apricot ash shows the sum of the two expected feeding reactions. When we supplement this liver extract with small amounts of whole liver (50 to 100 gm.) we may observe hemoglobin and red cell production in excess of the sum of the expected separate reactions. Whether the liver extract increases the potency of the whole liver feeding or vice versa, it suggests similar possibilities in various human secondary anemias. Liver and kidney fractions of varied types deserve much study to ascertain their effect upon widely divergent types of human anemias(5)

6. Other foods
In the study of Anemia plus hypoproteinemia in dogs; various proteins in diet show various patterns in blood protein production; beef muscle,. egg, lactalbumin, fibrin, viscera, and supplements, found that Egg protein, egg albumin, and lactalbumin all favor the production of more plasma protein and less hemoglobin as compared with casein. The plasma protein to hemoglobin ratio is increased, sometimes above 100 per cent. Supplements to the above proteins of casein digests or several amino acids may return the response toward that which is standard for casein. Histidine as a supplement to egg protein increases the total blood protein output and brings the ratio of plasma protein to hemoglobin toward that of casein. Beef muscle goes to the other extreme and favors new hemoglobin production up to 4 gm. hemoglobin to 1 gm. plasma protein-a ratio of 25 per cent. The total amounts of new blood proteins are high. Lactalbumin as compared with casein shows a lower total blood protein output and a plasma protein to hemoglobin ratio of 70 to 90 per cent. Amino acid supplements are less effective. See PDF for Structure Fibrin is a good food protein in these experiments-much like casein. When fed over these 5 week periods it causes a sustained increase in blood fibrinogen. Folic acid in the doses given has no effect on the expected response to various diets. Peanut flour is a very poor diet for the production of new hemoglobin and plasma proteins. Small supplements of casein and beef show a significant response with improved output of blood proteins. Soy bean flour gives a poor response and wheat gluten a good response with adequate output of blood proteins. Visceral products show some variety. Beef heart is not as effective as beef muscle. Beef spleen, kidney, and pancreas give good responses but not up to casein. Pig stomach, beef brain, and calf thymus are below average. The plasma protein to hemoglobin ratio shows a narrow range (40 to 60 per cent) in experiments with visceral products(6).

7. Etc.

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