Sunday, 10 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 14 Health Benefits of Myricetin

Myricetin is a flavonol, belong to the flavonoid in Flavonoids (polyphenols), found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, as well as other plants. It has been used as antioxidant to lower cholesterol, treat certain types of cancer, etc.

Health benefits
1. Anti cancers
In the investigation of dietary polyphenols as anticarcinogenic agents and the apoptotic effects of piceatannol and myricetin,found that apoptosis induced by piceatannol or myricetin occurs through an ROS-independent cell death pathway. In conclusion, piceatannol and myricetin synergistically induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells but not in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that the potential anticarcinogenic properties of dietary polyphenols depend largely on the cell line used, according to "Selective apoptotic effects of piceatannol and myricetin in human cancer cells" by Morales P, Haza AI.(1)

2. Skin Cancer
In the affirmation of myricetin, a flavonol, found in many plants, including tea, berries, fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs and its chemopreventive effects on skin cancer found that myricetin was found to inhibit UVB-induced angiogenesis by targeting PI3-K in an SKH-1 hairless mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Raf kinase is a critical target for myricetin in inhibiting the UVB-induced formation of wrinkles and suppression of type I procollagen and collagen levels in mouse skin, according to "Myricetin is a potent chemopreventive phytochemical in skin carcinogenesis" by Kang NJ, Jung SK, Lee KW, Lee HJ.(2)

3. Colon cancer
In the research of Myricetin, a well known bioflavonoid and its protective effect on colon cancer found that Myricetin not only brought about significant decrease in the incidence of number of tumor bearing rats but also the tumor incidence. Myricetin supplementation significantly reduced liver TBARS. Further the anti oxidant enzymes like Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase and GSH were significantly rejuvenated following myricetin supplementation in a dose dependent manner, according to "Effect of myricetin on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced rat colon carcinogenesis" by Nirmala P, Ramanathan M.(3)

4. Pancreatic cancer
In the observation of the flavonoid myricetin and its effect on metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines, found that myricetin resulted in tumor regression and decreased metastatic spread. Importantly, myricetin was non-toxic, both in vitro and in vivo, underscoring its use as a therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer, according to the study of "Myricetin induces pancreatic cancer cell death via the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway" by Phillips PA, Sangwan V, Borja-Cacho D, Dudeja V, Vickers SM, Saluja AK.(4)

5. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity
In the evaluation of extracted from plants containing phenolic compound, including flavonoid-galloyl glycoside [myricetin 3-O-(2',3'4'-tri-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside] and theirs antioxidant and cytotoxic effect found that the methanol extract exhibited high antioxidant activity (SC(50) = 3.94 µg/ml), which is correlated with its phenolic content. The extract also showed cytotoxic activity against Hep G2 (IC(50) value 1.41 µg/ml) confirming its anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma, according to the study of "Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Leucenia leucocephala" by Haggag EG, Kamal AM, Abdelhady MI, El-Sayed MM, El-Wakil EA, Abd-El-Hamed SS.(5)

6. Liver cancer
In the examination of study the mechanism of myricetin and its effect on the HepG-2 cell line found that Myricetin significantly inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of HepG-2 in a dose-dependent manner, which is accompanied with G2/M and S phase arrest. In addition, myricetin also increases the activation of caspase 3,9 and results in a depolarization and delta psi m collapse in a dose-dependent manner, according to "[Studies on mechanism of myricetin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells].[Article in Chinese]" by Zhang X, Ling Y, Yu H, Ji Y.(6)

7. Synovial sarcoma cells
In observation of myricetin and its effect on the destruction cartilage and bone in RA joint found that Myricetin significantly decreased IL-1beta-induced production of IL-6 and MMP-1 in synovial cells. Moreover, myricetin diminished the phosphorylation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. These results suggest that myricetin reduces the production of MMP and IL-6 in SW982 cells by inhibiting (mitogen-activated protein kinases)MAPKs (JNK and p38), according to "Myricetin inhibits IL-1beta-induced inflammatory mediators in SW982 human synovial sarcoma cells" by Lee YS, Choi EM.(7)

8. Leukemia
In the comparison of the cytotoxic effect of 11 flavonoids on chronic myeloid leukemia (erythroblast crisis) K562 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors found that Baicalein and myricetin had a specific cytotoxic effect on leukemia cells, according to "Cytotoxic effect of flavonoids on leukemia cells and normal cells of human blood" by Romanouskaya TV, Grinev VV.(8)

9. Cell transformation
In the analyzing myricetin and its effect on cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis found that myricetin inhibited Akt-mediated activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation, cyclin D1 expression and cell transformation. Overall, our results indicate that Akt is a direct target for myricetin to inhibit cell transformation, acccording to "Akt is a direct target for myricetin to inhibit cell transformation" by Kumamoto T, Fujii M, Hou DX.(9)

10. Esophageal cancer
In the investigation of flavones and flavonols and their effect on on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (KYSE-510) found that the cytotoxic potency of these compounds was in the order of: luteolin>quercetin>chrysin>kaempferol>apigenin>myricetin. . Flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation analysis indicated that the cytotoxicity induced by flavones and flavonols was mediated by G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, according to "Cytotoxicity of flavones and flavonols to a human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (KYSE-510) by induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis' by Zhang Q, Zhao XH, Wang ZJ.(10)

11. Antitumour and anti-inflammatory activities
In the observation of of flavonoids isolated from Byrsonima crass and its effect on mammary tumour cells LM2, found that almost all the samples showed inhibitory activity to the release of NO but not of TNF-alpha. Of all substances tested, flavonoids 2 (quercetin) and 6 (myricetin) may show promising activity in the treatment of murine breast cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities, according to "Isolated flavonoids against mammary tumour cells LM2" by Carli CB, de Matos DC, Lopes FC, Maia DC, Dias MB, Sannomiya M, Rodrigues CM, Andreo MA, Vilegas W, Colombo LL, Carlos IZ.(11)

12. Ovarian cancer
In the research of
inverse associations with certain flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses (myricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, and apigenin) and ovarian cancer risk, found that In analyses of each individual flavonoid, only intake of apigenin was associated with a borderline significant decrease in risk (RR, highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.59-1.06; p-trend = 0.26), and this association was significant after adjustment for intake of the other 4 individual flavonoids (comparable RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53-0.98; p-trend = 0.09), according to "Flavonoid intake and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study" by Gates MA, Vitonis AF, Tworoger SS, Rosner B, Titus-Ernstoff L, Hankinson SE, Cramer DW.(12)

13. Prostate cancer
In the selection of several potential uPA inhibitors (antipain, leupeptin, folic acid, rosmarinic acid, lavendustin A, fisetin, myricetin, tolfenamic acid) and examination of theirs effects in prostate cancer found that a proper diet rich in uPA-inhibiting nutraceuticals might support the prevention of prostrate cancer and be a supportive tool in prostate cancer treatment, according to "Nutraceutical inhibitors of urokinase: potential applications in prostate cancer prevention and treatment" by Jankun J, Selman SH, Aniola J, Skrzypczak-Jankun E.(13)

14. Breast cancer
In study of
red wine intake and its beneficial health effects on the proliferation of hormone-dependent breast cancer cells found that the estrogenic activity of PIC(piceatannol) and MYR(myricetin) might be considered at least as a potential factor in the association of red wine intake and breast tumors, particularly in postmenopausal women, according to "The red wine phenolics piceatannol and myricetin act as agonists for estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells" by Maggiolini M, Recchia AG, Bonofiglio D, Catalano S, Vivacqua A, Carpino A, Rago V, Rossi R, Andò S.(14)

15. Etc.

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