Sunday, 10 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 11 Health Benefits of Kaempferol

Kaempferol is type of flavonoid found in tea, broccoli, Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit,cabbage, kale, beans, endive, etc., and may be a potential phytochemical in preventing arteriosclerosis, oxidative damage of cells, lipids and DNA, etc.
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Health Benefits
Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects
In the investigation of the effects of kaempferol-3,7-O-(alpha)-dirhamnoside (kaempferitrin) on serum glucose levels for its antioxidant potential and hypoglycemic effect found that the hypoglycemic effect of kaempferitrin in diabetic rats was evident at all doses tested (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), and this profile was maintained throughout the period studied for both higher doses while the compound showed high reactivity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), IC(50) of 84.0 +/- 7.8 microM, inhibited myeloperoxidase activity with K(0.5) = 86 +/- 9.9 microM, and decreased lipid peroxidation, induced by ascorbyl radical either in microsomes or in asolectin and phosphatidylcholine liposomes, with IC(50)'s of 320 +/- 14.1, 223 +/- 8.3, and 112 +/- 8.8 microM, respectively, according to the study of "Hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential of kaempferol-3,7-O-(alpha)-dirhamnoside from Bauhinia forficata leaves" by de Sousa E, Zanatta L, Seifriz I, Creczynski-Pasa TB, Pizzolatti MG, Szpoganicz B, Silva FR.(1)

2. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of Kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside (KPOS), isolated from the leaves of cultivated mountain ginseng and its Anti-inflammatory effects, found that that KPOS possesses barrier integrity activity, inhibitory activity on cell adhesion and migration to endothelial cells by blocking the activation of NF-κB expression and production of TNF-α, thereby endorsing its usefulness as therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases, according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside in human endothelial cells" by Kim TH, Ku SK, Lee IC, Bae JS.(2)

3. Antimicrobial effect
In the observation of kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp and theirs antimicrobial effect found that the anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds, according to the study of "Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruit" by Hendra R, Ahmad S, Sukari A, Shukor MY, Oskoueian E.(3)

4. Cardioprotective effect
In the analyzing the LGP consisted of 92% carbohydrate and was rich in flavans, anthocyanins, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and resveratrol and it effect in cardiovascular diseases found that through alterations in lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, LGP intake beneficially affected key risk factors for coronary heart disease in both pre- and postmenopausal women, according to "Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress" by Zern TL, Wood RJ, Greene C, West KL, Liu Y, Aggarwal D, Shachter NS, Fernandez ML.(4)

5. Neuroprotective effects
In the investigationthe neuroprotective effects of kaempferol in the mouse model of Parkinson's disease found that kaempferol could prevent the loss of TH-positive neurons induced by MPTP. Taken together, we propose that kaempferol has shown anti-Parkinsonian properties in our studies. More work is needed to explore detailed mechanisms of action, according to"Neuroprotective effect of kaempferol against a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease" by Li S, Pu XP.(5)

6. Osteoporosis
In observation of two widespread flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol and their anti anti-osteoporotic effects found that both flavonols significantly increased (alkaline phosphatase) ALP activity and concluded that flavonols derivatives as quercetin and kaempferol can stimulate osteoblastic activity. Such compounds may represent new pharmacological tools for the treatment of osteoporosis, according to "Stimulatory effect of naturally occurring flavonols quercetin and kaempferol on alkaline phosphatase activity in MG-63 human osteoblasts through ERK and estrogen receptor pathway" by Prouillet C, Mazière JC, Mazière C, Wattel A, Brazier M, Kamel S.(6)

7. Estrogenic effects
In the research of Kaempferol (K), a flavonol and its anti-osteoclastogenic effect inovariectomized adult Sprague-Dawley rats found that The K-treated group exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in the trabecular regions (femur neck, proximal tibia and vertebrae) and lower serum ALP (bone turnover marker), according to "Kaempferol has osteogenic effect in ovariectomized adult Sprague-Dawley rats" by Trivedi R, Kumar S, Kumar A, Siddiqui JA, Swarnkar G, Gupta V, Kendurker A, Dwivedi AK, Romero JR, Chattopadhyay N.(7)

8. Anxiolytic-like response
In the comparison of three different regions of Mexico to compare their flavonoid content, including quercetin and kaempferol glycosides and anxiolytic-like response flavonoid content and anxiolytic-like response found that cince quercetin and kaempferol aglycons demonstrated anxiolytic-like response and that no difference in the pharmacological evaluation was observed between these three Mexican Tilias, we suggest that this pharmacological effect of Tilia inflorescences involves these flavonoids occurrence independently of the kind of glycosides present in the samples, according to "HPLC/MS analysis and anxiolytic-like effect of quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids from Tilia americana var. mexicana" by Aguirre-Hernández E, González-Trujano ME, Martínez AL, Moreno J, Kite G, Terrazas T, Soto-Hernández M.(8)

9. Anti cancers
In the investigation of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) found to have the presence of of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol and it anti cancer effect found that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer, according to the study of "Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells" by Sreelatha S, Jeyachitra A, Padma PR.(9)

10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects
In the evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Cassia siamea Lam stem bark extracts, including four major families of compounds present in the plant may explain these activities: triterpenes (lupeol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, friedelin, betulin), flavonoids (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin), anthraquinones (emodin), phytosterols (stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol). found that At the doses used (100, 200, and 400mg/kg) ethanol and water extracts showed significant and dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, according to "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cassia siamea Lam. stem bark extracts" by Nsonde Ntandou GF, Banzouzi JT, Mbatchi B, Elion-Itou RD, Etou-Ossibi AW, Ramos S, Benoit-Vical F, Abena AA, Ouamba JM.

11. Anti-allergic effects
In the observation of flavonoid kaempferol glycoside compounds derived from plants and theirs anti allergic effects found that GRRK treatment before or after established allergic lung disease down-regulates key asthmatic features. Therefore, (alpha-l-ramnopiranosil]-7-O-alpha-l-ramnopiranosil-kaempferol) GRRK has a potential clinical use for the treatment of allergic asthma, according to the study of "Preventive and curative glycoside kaempferol treatments attenuate the TH2-driven allergic airway disease" by Medeiros KC, Faustino L, Borduchi E, Nascimento RJ, Silva TM, Gomes E, Piuvezam MR, Russo M.(11)

12. Etc.
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