Sunday, 10 November 2013

Phytochemicals - 11 Health Benefits of Carnosol

Carnosol, a phytochemical monophenols, found in several labiate herbs like Rosemary and Sage.. It is best known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

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Health Benefits
1. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the study of The increased adhesion of monocytes to injured endothelial layers and the effect of carnosol and rosemary essential oils found that the essential oil inhibit the adhesion of TNFalpha-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppress the expression of ICAM-1 at the transcriptional level, according to "Dual mechanisms of NF-kappaB inhibition in carnosol-treated endothelial cells" by Lian KC, Chuang JJ, Hsieh CW, Wung BS, Huang GD, Jian TY, Sun YW(1)

2. Prostate Cancer
In the evaluation of Dietetic Factors of Mediterranean Diet and it effects on Prostate Cancer found that the preventive effect of MD (high daily ingestion of vegetarian products (cereals, legums, dried and fresh fruits, tubercles, vegetables..) is due to the great number and quality of phytochemicals ((lycopene, lupeol, quercetin, genistein, carnosol, resveratrol, catechins, vitamins..) with antioxidant and antinflammatory properties that contains, according to "Dietetic Factors Associated With Prostate Cancer. Protective Effects of Mediterranean Diet.[Article in English, Spanish]" by Ferrís-Tortajada J, Berbel-Tornero O, García-Castell J, Ortega-García JA, López-Andreu JA.(2)

3. Cancer prevention
In the demonstration of scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 and their study of protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer found that rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials, according to "Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives" by Ngo SN, Williams DB, Head RJ.(3)

4. Anti-cancer
In this demonstration of the Mediterranean diet and more specifically certain meats, fruits, vegetables, and olive oil found in certain parts of the Mediterranean region and it effects in Cancer found that carnosol targets multiple deregulated pathways associated with inflammation and cancer that include nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), apoptotic related proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt, androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as molecular targets. In addition, carnosol appears to be well tolerated in that it has a selective toxicity towards cancer cells versus non-tumorigenic cells and is well tolerated when administered to animals, according to "Carnosol: a promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent" by Johnson JJ.(4)

5. Liver cancer
In the study of Rosemarry essential oil (0.005%-0.02%) and carnosol (5 and 10 mol/L) and it effcets on Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 found that pretreatment of the HepG2 cells with essential oil and carnosol exerted significant cytoprotective effects against H(2)O(2) or alcohol, according to "Upregulation of NF-E2-related factor-2-dependent glutathione by carnosol provokes a cytoprotective response and enhances cell survival" by Chen CC, Chen HL, Hsieh CW, Yang YL, Wung BS.(5)

6. Skin diseases
In the evaluation of the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L., including carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line, according to 'Suppression of COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α expression and leukocyte infiltration in inflamed skin by bioactive compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L" by Mengoni ES, Vichera G, Rigano LA, Rodriguez-Puebla ML, Galliano SR, Cafferata EE, Pivetta OH, Moreno S, Vojnov AA.(6)

7. Skin-whitening
In the measurement of the melanin content by using B16 melanoma cells is generally applied to find novel skin-whitening agents found that Carnosol, and rottlerin strongly inhibited the tyrosinase promoter activity. Moreover, carnosol and rottlerin decreased melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression in a dose-dependent manner when using B16 melanoma cells. These results indicate this new luciferase reported assay system to be an effective and convenient method for screening potential skin-whitening compounds, according to "Novel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assay" by
Shirasugi I, Sakakibara Y, Yamasaki M, Nishiyama K, Matsui T, Liu MC, Suiko M.(7)

8. Lung injury
In the observation of Carnosol, a phenolic diterpeneand it effects on lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (II/R) found that carnosol markedly reduced lung injury by increasing the tissue superoxide activity and decreasing the myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin-6 level, which was parallel to the decreased expression of ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB, according to "Protective effect of carnosol on lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion" by Tian XF, Yao JH, Zhang XS, Zheng SS, Guo XH, Wang LM, Wang ZZ, Liu KX.(8)

9. Atherosclerosis
In the study of oral RE (77.7 mg) for 21 days, consisting of active substances carnosol (0.97 mg), carnosic (8.60 mg) and rosmarinic acid (10.30 mg) and it effect on Atherosclerosis found that Among the serum markers, only the mean PAI-1 level decreased significantly (4.25 ± 1.46 U/mL vs 3.0 ± 0.61 U/mL, p = 0.012) after 21-day RE supplementation. It is concluded that oral RE supplementation has the potential to improve serum PAI-1 activity and ED in young and healthy individuals, according to "Rosemary extracts improve flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery and plasma PAI-1 activity in healthy young volunteers" by Sinkovic A, Suran D, Lokar L, Fliser E, Skerget M, Novak Z, Knez Z.(9)

10. Antimicrobial activity
In the determination of EtOH/H2O extracts from the leaves and stems of Rosmarinus officinalis L and it antimicrobial effects found that antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3), according to "Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol' by Bernardes WA, Lucarini R, Tozatti MG, Souza MG, Silva ML, Filho AA, Martins CH, Crotti AE, Pauletti PM, Groppo M, Cunha WR.(10)

11. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
In the evaluation of Carnosol, from the herb rosemary, has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death in high-risk pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) found that carnosol blocks the terminal apoptotic events induced by chemotherapeutic drugs and suggest that increased dietary intake of carnosol may potentially decrease the effectiveness of some standard chemotherapy treatments used for leukemia, according to "Carnosol delays chemotherapy-induced DNA fragmentation and morphological changes associated with apoptosis in leukemic cells" by Zunino SJ, Storms DH.(11)

12. Etc.

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Overdoses of Carnosol may cause kidney failure. If you have kidney disease or are pregnant, please do not use the herb with out approval of the related field specialist.


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