Sunday, 24 November 2013

Ischemic Heart Disease - The Symptoms

Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins).
II. Ischemic heart disease
 Ischemic heart disease is defined as a condition of  reduced blood supply of the heart muscle, as a result of  coronary artery disease caused by plague building up in the arteries.
A. Symptoms
Reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle may be resulting in a number of symptoms, which can vary in intensity among individuals.

1. Angina pectoris
Angina pectoris is defined as a condition of chest pain as a result of lack of blood supply to the heart muscle, due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries of the heart's blood vessels.

2. Acute coronary syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome is defined as any group of symptoms caused by obstruction of the coronary arteries, mostly due to  ST elevation myocardial infarction (30%), non ST elevation myocardial infarction (25%), or unstable angina (38%)
a. ST elevation myocardial infarction
St elevation myocardial infarction is a heart attack as a result of blockage of blood flow to the heart long enough time to cause damage or die of the heart muscle.
b. Unstable angina 
Unstable angina, a type of acute coronary syndrome is a medical condition as a result of the heart not enough blood flow and oxygen cause of heart attack
c. Myocardial infarction
 Myocardial infarction, a severe chest pain can not be relieved by rest as a result of acute heart damage.
Some researchers suggested that Ischemia refers to inadequate supply of oxygen and metabolic substrate to an organ. The term myocardial ischemia covers a heterogeneous group of clinical syndromes, globally called ischemic heart disease, which includes chronic stable angina at one end of the spectrum and acute myocardial infarction at the other end. Between these two extremes, there is a broad myriad of intermediate syndromes, all having in common a mismatch between oxygen demand and supply. Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of all morbidity and mortality in the United States(1).

3. Heart failure 
Heart failure is defined as a condition in which the heart can't pump and/or fill enough blood to meet the body's needs due to weakness of the heart muscle of that can lead to difficulty in breathing or swelling of the extremities.

4. Fatigue and depression
Disease stage was neither associated with symptoms of fatigue (P=0.99) nor depression (P=0.29) at 12 months. In contrast, type-D personality was shown to predict both symptoms of fatigue [odds ratio (OR)=2.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.92-4.58, P<0.001] and depression (OR=4.91; 95% CI: 3.16-7.65, P<0.001) at follow-up, but type-D personality(2)

5. Other symptoms include 
a. Clammy skin
b. Nausea with or without vomiting
c. Pain in the neck or jaw
d. difficulty in breathing or rapid breathing
e. swelling of the extremities
f. Pain on Shoulder or arm
g. Etc.
6. Etc.
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