Friday, 1 November 2013

@Healthy Foods - Whole grain- Quinoa (Chenopodium)

Quinoa is an ancient food that is not yet well known in North America. It has been cultivated in South American since at least 3,000 B.C. It is a genus Chenopodium, belongs to family Amaranthaceae, a grain-like crop grown primarily for its edible seeds.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Starch
3. Dietary fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Vitamin B6
9. Folate (Vitamin B9)
10. Vitamin E
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Magnesium
14. Phosphorus
15. Selenium
16. Copper
17. Zinc
18. Etc

Health benefits
A. Health Benefits according to researches
1. Cholesterol
In the assessment of Chenopodium quinoa seeds and its effect in cholesterol levels found that the quinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose, accoesing to the study of "Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats" by Paśko P, Zagrodzki P, Bartoń H, Chłopicka J, Gorinstein S.(a)

2. Antioxidants
In the investigation of quinoa seeds and its antioxidant effects found that quinoa seeds can act as a moderate protective agent against potential of fructose-induced changes in rats by reducing lipid peroxidation and by enhancing the antioxidant capacity of blood (plasma) and heart, kidney, testis, lung and pancreas, according to "Effect of diet supplemented with quinoa seeds on oxidative status in plasma and selected tissues of high fructose-fed rats" by Pasko P, Barton H, Zagrodzki P, Izewska A, Krosniak M, Gawlik M, Gawlik M, Gorinstein S.(b)

3. Nutrients
In the demonstration of Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd and their nurients fact found thatThe quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition, according to"Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review" by Vega-Gálvez A, Miranda M, Vergara J, Uribe E, Puente L, Martínez EA.(c)

4. Eating behavior
In the evaluation of some alternative crops (for example, buckwheat, oat, barley, spelt, rye, quinoa, amaranth) and their effect in eating behavior found that Satiating efficiency indices (SEI) for alternative crop foods were higher with respect to traditional cereal foods. In particular, white bread was the least satisfying food (SEI =0.2) and the different time of consumption (for lunch or as a snack) did not affect energy intake. In conclusion, oat or buckwheat formulations, and also quinoa, may be exploited for their potential impact on eating behaviour, particularly considering they are good sources of functional substances, according to "Effect on appetite control of minor cereal and pseudocereal products" by Berti C, Riso P, Brusamolino A, Porrini M.(d)

5. Glucose response
In observation of quinoa and its Glucose response found that there were no significant differences observed between the (are under the cuvre) AUCs of insulin responses to all products tested. Glycemic index (GI) for GF (gluten-free foods) pasta was similar to GI for GF bread while GI for quinoa was slightly lower than that of GF pasta and bread. Two-way ANOVA revealed that quinoa induced lower FFA levels with respect to GF pasta, according to the study of " In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glucose response of gluten-free foods and their gluten counterparts" by Berti C, Riso P, Monti LD, Porrini M.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health Benefits according to the concentration
1. Manganese
It is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(2)

2. Megnesium
Magnesium not only important for bone health, according to the study of "Magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Can magnesium play a key role in osteoporosis?" by Odabasi E, Turan M, Aydin A, Akay C, Kutlu M(3) but also play and important role in protecting against Alzheimer's disease, according to the study of "Altered ionized magnesium levels in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease" by Barbagallo M, Belvedere M, Di Bella G, Dominguez LJ.(4)

3. Iron
Beside as a mineral in carrying life-giving oxygen to human blood cells and maintaining robust health as an essential protein component for metabolism, it also helps in synthesis of a number of essential neurotransmitters like dopamine, nor-epinephrine, along with serotonin. acccording to the study of "Brain Iron Dysregulation and the Risk of Ageing White Matter Lesions" by Gebril OH, Simpson JE, Kirby J, Brayne C, Ince PG., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The mRNA expression using QPCR suggests a pattern that favours decreased intracellular iron influx, increased ferrous oxidation and increased iron export from the cells. Iron metabolism seems to be changed in brains with WML, increased elemental iron in these brains and in turn increased production of free oxidative radicals could represent a potentiating factor for the development of ageing WML. .

4. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids which the body uses to synthesize the proteins for brain cells need, thus enhancing the nerve cells in information transmitting between themselves and cells in the parts of the body that reduces the risk of anxiety and depression, according to the study of "The effects of tryptophan depletion on neural responses to emotional words in remitted depression" by Roiser JP, Levy J, Fromm SJ, Nugent AC, Talagala SL, Hasler G, Henn FA, Sahakian BJ, Drevets WC.(5)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Prostate health

Since quinoa contains a measure amount of zinc, it helps to
a. Reduce the risk of prostate enlargement, according to the study of 1,320 men over the age of 40 in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)., posted in Pubmed, researchers concluded that a protective effect of zinc intake on cadmium-induced prostatic injury, and may provide further rationale for investigating the impact of these factors individually and jointly on the etiology of prostate cancer.
b. improve the test in normal sperm production, thus reducing the risk of sperm causes of infertility. In the study of "An Overview of the Genitourinary System" White JM ., posted in PubMed, researcher indicated that Although sperm production and transport may be impaired and erectile dysfunction may be present, most patients present for evaluation of the male genital tract because of inflammatory processes and tumors of these organs. The interaction between the urinary tract and male genital organs, such as the prostate, often creates diagnostic challenges for the clinician.

2. DNA repair and replication
Zinc plays a key role in DNA replication and repair because of it function as a component of chromatin (according to the study of "Intra-individual variation of the sperm chromatin structure assay DNA fragmentation index in men from infertile couples" by Oleszczuk K, Giwercman A, Bungum M., posted in PubMed, researchers found that despite showing a high intra-individual CV for DFI, 85% of the men from infertile couples did not change category between tests, with respect to the cut-off level of 30%. Thus, using the previously established DFI cut-off value of 30%, a single SCSA analysis has a high predictive value for assessing fertility in vivo.) and antioxidant enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (according to the study of "Tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress is due to high levels of Zn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase" Celino FT, Yamaguchi S, Miura C, Ohta T, Tozawa Y, Iwai T, Miura T., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that the presence of high levels of Cu/Zn SOD and Zn render spermatogonia resistant to ROS, and consequently protected from oxidative stress. These findings provide the biochemical basis for the high tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress).

3. Oxidation
Since its contains a measure of selenium and vitamin E, it increases the immune function fighting against the oxidation of bad cholesterol (LDL) (according tothe study of "Protective role of intraperitoneally administrated vitamin E and selenium on the levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of muscle and liver tissues in rats" by Yilmaz O, Celik S, Cay M, Naziroğlu M., posted in PubMed, researchers found that the level of total lipid and cholesterol in muscle and liver tissues were reduced by administrating vitamin E and Se together. Additionally, the fatty acid synthesis in the muscle and liver tissues was decreased by this process) and prevent plague accumulated cause of Atherosclerosis (according to the study of 'Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" by Bleys J, Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Appel LJ, Guallar E., posted in PubMed) thus reducing the risk of heart diseases and hypertension.

4. Lignans
As we mentioned from the past article, lignan plays an important role in reducing the risk of abnormal menstrual cycle and enhancing the chance of fertility by occupying the receptors site with weak estrogen due to its function as a member of phytonutrients. According to the research of "Effect of flax seed ingestion on the menstrual cycle" by Phipps WR, Martini MC, Lampe JW, Slavin JL, Kurzer MS., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote in the conclusion that Our data suggest a significant specific role for lignans in the relationship between diet and sex steroid action, and possibly between diet and the risk of breast and other hormonally dependent cancers.

5. Etc
Side effects
1. Oxalates
Oxalates in quinoa may cause problem for people with kidney diseases.
2. Etc.

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