Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Sweet Peppers (Capsicum Annuum)

Sweet pepper is a species of Capsicum Annuum and contains different color, including red, yellow and orange, native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America.

1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Dietary fiber
4. Fat
5. Protein
6. Thiamine (VitaminB1)
7. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
8. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
9. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12,. Vitamin C
13,. Calcium
14. Iron
15. Magnesium
16. Phosphorus
17. Potassium
18. Zinc
19. Molybdenum
20. Vitamin E
21. Copper
22. Typtophan
23. Etc.

Health Benefits

A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Anti-inflammation
In the investigation of Capsiate and its dihydroderivatives in sweet pepper found that intraperitoneal pretreatment with nordihydrocapsiate (CPT) prevented mice from lethal septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide. In a second model of inflammation CPT pretreatment greatly reduced the extensive damage in the glandular epithelium observed in the bowel of DSS-treated mice, according to "Immunosuppressive activity of capsaicinoids: capsiate derived from sweet peppers inhibits NF-kappaB activation and is a potent antiinflammatory compound in vivo" by Sancho R, Lucena C, Macho A, Calzado MA, Blanco-Molina M, Minassi A, Appendino G, Muñoz E.(a)

2. Antioxidant activities
In the assessment of the antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) found that all 4 colored peppers exhibited significant abilities in preventing the oxidation of cholesterol or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) during heating. However, these 4 peppers did not show significant differences in their abilities in preventing cholesterol oxidation. The green pepper showed slightly higher capability in preventing the oxidation of DHA compared to the other 3 peppers, according to "Antioxidant activities of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)" by Sun T, Xu Z, Wu CT, Janes M, Prinyawiwatkul W, No HK.(b)

3. Blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR)
In the analyzing the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans found that that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers, according to "Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans" by Hachiya S, Kawabata F, Ohnuki K, Inoue N, Yoneda H, Yazawa S, Fushiki T.(c)

4. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(I)
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(II)

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(III) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(IV)

3. Vitamin B6
c. 1. Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (

c.2. It also plays a pivotal role as a methyl donor in the basic cellular process of methylation, through which methyl groups are transferred from one molecule to another, resulting in the formation of a wide variety of precess, including regulation of gene expression, protein function, and RNA metabolism. When levels of B6 are inadequate, it may cause faulty Methylation with high levels of homocysteine that can cause variety of disease, including cervical dysplasia, faulty detoxification and impaired DNA repair, etc., according to the study of "Back To Life Natural Health Center - Healthcare Through Natural Methods"(

4. Folate
Beside it is essential vitamin in synthesis of DNA (According to the study of "Folate stimulation of wound DNA synthesis" by Zhang XJ, Chinkes DL, Herndon DN., Posted in PubMed (, amino acid metabolism (accprding to the study of "Assessment of vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin B-6 status and relation to sulfur amino acid metabolism in neonates" Minet JC, Bissé E, Aebischer CP, Beil A, Wieland H, Lütschg J.Posted in PubMed (, etc. it also plays an important in regulating cells division and replication, thus reducing the risk of improper growth of cells, leading to tumors and cancers, according to the study of "Folate and cancer: how DNA damage, repair and methylation impact on colon carcinogenesis" by Duthie SJ., posted in PubMed (, reseachers concluded that Folate maintains genomic stability by regulating DNA biosynthesis, repair and methylation. Folate deficiency induces and accelerates carcinogenesis by perturbing each of these processes.

5. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(V)

6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Antioxidant
The antioxidants in sweet pepper also helps the body in fighting against the forming of free radicals by enhancing the immune system in regulating the proper cell division ans DNA replication, according to "Antioxidants - Cancers and Diseases" by Kyle J. Norton(1)

2. Diabetes
Sweet pepper' fiber reduces the risk of of type II diabetes, as a result of the presence of sufficiently quantities of beta-glucan, psyllium, or guar gum have decreased insulin and glucose responses "[Dietary fibers: current trends and health benefits in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes].[Article in Portuguese]" by Mello VD, Laaksonen DE.(2)

3. Nervous system
Sweet pepper contain high amount of typtophan which helps to synthesize the proteins for the brain cells need, thus reducing the risk of nervous tension causes of loss of appetite, insomnia, mood change, etc., according to "Effects of tryptophan depletion on cognitive functioning, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and mood in obsessive-compulsive disorder: preliminary results" by Külz AK, Meinzer S, Kopasz M, Voderholzer U.(3)

4. Cholesterol
Sweet peppers beside elevates antioxidant activity, free-radical scavenging capability and it also reduces the oxidation of cholesterol and omega 3 fatty acid DHA during heating and cooking, thus preventing the plaque building up on the arterial walls, according to "Hypoxanthine levels in human urine serve as a screening indicator for the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein modulation activities of fermented red pepper paste" by Kim Y, Park YJ, Yang SO, Kim SH, Hyun SH, Cho S, Kim YS, Kwon DY, Cha YS, Chae S, Choi HK.(4)

5. Etc.

Side Effects

1. Burning sensation on the skin,
2. Coughing, sneezing, teary eyes and a scratchy throat.
3. Vomiting and/or stomach pain
4. Etc.
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