Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Green beans (Phaseolus Sensu Stricto)

Green beans
Green bean is a genus of Phaseolus Sensu Stricto, containing 55 difference species, belong to the family Fabaceae and native to the New World tropics and grown in Europe for its attractive flowers and fleshy immature pods. It can be classified into two major groups, bush beans and pole beans.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Omega 3 Fatty Acid
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin B1
7. Vitamin B2
8. Vitamin B3
9. Folate
10. Vitamin C
11. Vitamin K
12. Magnesium
13. Tryptophan
14. Phosphorus
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Potassium
19. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Antioxidants
in the
comparison in their ability to retain vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidative activity (DPPH and FRAP) in industrially blanched/frozen tip-cut green beans and swede rods found that by conventional cooking, 13.5-42.8% of the nutrients leaked into the cooking water; by sous vide about 10% leaked to the exuded liquid, while no leakage occurred by boil-in-bag cooking. Warm-holding beans after cooking reduced recoveries in all components. Recoveries in swede rods were comparable but overall slightly lower, according to "Vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidative activity in tip-cut green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and swede rods (Brassica napus var. napobrassica) processed by methods used in catering" by Baardseth P, Bjerke F, Martinsen BK, Skrede G.(a)

2. Anti
platelet aggregation
In the investigation of the extracts from selected fruits and vegetables and their Antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic activity found that Extracts of green beans and tomatoes inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP and arachidonic acid, in a concentration-dependent manner. The methanolic extracts of grapes prolonged the PT and dPT., according to "Antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic activity in vitro of extracts from selected fruits and vegetables" by Torres-Urrutia C, Guzmán L, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Moore-Carrasco R, Alarcón M, Astudillo L, Gutierrez M, Carrasco G, Yuri JA, Aranda E, Palomo I.(b)

Hyperglycemia and hypertension management
In the observation of traditional corn, beans, and pumpkin and their effects on hyperglycemia and hypertension management found that further protective non-nutrient phenolic phytochemicals against NIDDM and hypertension are potentially high in these foods but less understood. In this study antidiabetic- and antihypertension-relevant potentials of phenolic phytochemicals were confirmed in select important traditional plant foods of indigenous communities such as pumpkin, beans, and maize using in vitro enzyme assays for -glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities, according to "Health benefits of traditional corn, beans, and pumpkin: in vitro studies for hyperglycemia and hypertension management" by Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Kim YC, Shetty K.(c)

Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects
In the investigation of
Water-soluble extracts of soybean optimized for phenolic content via sprouting or bioprocessing by dietary fungus (Rhizopus oligosporus, Lentinus edodes) and its effect inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), yeast alpha-glucosidase, and rabbit lung ACE found that all of the soybean extracts possessed marked anti-amylase activity, with extracts of R. oligosporus-bioprocessed soybean having the strongest inhibitory activity, but only slight anti-glucosidase activity, according to "Anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean" by McCue P, Kwon YI, Shetty K.(d)

5. Cardiovascular diseases
In the
researches of phyto-oestrogens, isoflavones, lignans, genistein, daidzein, enterolactone, enterodiol and theirs effect on cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease risk factors found that Phyto-oestrogens are considered to act as selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERM), exerting both oestrogen agonist and antagonist action. Supplementation with isolated soy protein containing the isoflavones genistein and daidzein reduces serum total and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in animals and in humans. Vascular reactivity might be improved by supplementation with isolated soy protein or isoflavones isolated from red clover, according to "Phyto-oestrogens and cardiovascular disease risk" by van der Schouw YT, de Kleijn MJ, Peeters PH, Grobbee DE.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
a. Asthma
Vitamin C is one of the key antioxidant vitamins which is abundant in the extracellular fluid lining the lung and low vitamin C intake has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction, such as asthma, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(I)
b. DNA Damage
Ascorbic acid (AA), known as vitamin C, has important antioxidant vitamin has exerted the activity in preventing (imazalil)IMA-induced cause of DNA damage, according to the stuyd of "The protective role of ascorbic acid on imazalil-induced genetic damage assessed by the cytogenetic tests' by Türkez H, Aydin E.(II)

2. Vitamin Ka) Bone density
A study by done by Vermeer, M H Knapen, and L J Schurger stated "it (vitamin K) was shown that administration of 1-10 mg of Vitamin K is paralleled by a moderate increase in the serum markers for bone formation (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase), or by a slight decrease in the urinary hydroxyproline exceretion ( a marker for bone resorption), and by a reduction of urinary calcium loss. Most prominent effects were obtained in fast losers of calcium."

b) Antiging
By protecting the under layer of skin membranes and stopping skin bleeding, according to the study of "Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors deficiency" by Brenner B, Kuperman AA, Watzka M, Oldenburg J.(III)

3. Vitamin AVitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(IV)

4. ManganeseIt is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(V)

5. Dietary fiberDaily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(VI)

6. Etc.
C. Other health benefits
1. Immune function
Since it contains high amount of antioxidants, it improves the immune function in fighting against the forming of radicals and foreign invasion thus decreasing the risk of irregular cell growth cause of cancer, according tothe study of "Intakes of vitamins A, C and E and folate and multivitamins and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of 8 prospective studies" by Cho E, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Albanes D, Beeson WL, van den Brandt PA, Colditz GA, Feskanich D, Folsom AR, Fraser GE, Freudenheim JL, Giovannucci E, Goldbohm RA, Graham S, Miller AB, Rohan TE, Sellers TA, Virtamo J, Willett WC, Smith-Warner SA.(1). Also the antioxidants vitamin C of green bean also prevents cholesterol oxidation, thus reducing the risk of heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Antioxidant vitamins and their use in preventing cardiovascular disease" by Farbstein D, Kozak-Blickstein A, Levy AP.(2)

3. Vitamin C
The high amounts of vitamin C, beside enhances the digestive system in absorbing vital nutrient and protects our body against acute inflammatory arthritis, according to the study of "Vitamin C intake and the risk of gout in men: a prospective study" by Choi HK, Gao X, Curhan G.(3)

4. Constipation
Since it contains high amount of fiber, it promotes large intestine in waste secretion, thus reducing the risk of constipation and colon cancer, according to the study of "Influence of dietary fiber on inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer: importance of fermentation pattern" by Rose DJ, DeMeo MT, Keshavarzian A, Hamaker BR.(4)

5. Tryptophan
Tryptophan is an amino acid needed for normal growth in infants and for nitrogen balance in adults. It functions as a biochemical precursor for melatonin which improves the monoaminergic neurotransmission , according to the study of "Chronic melatonin treatment and its precursor L-tryptophan improve the monoaminergic neurotransmission and related behavior in the aged rat brain" Esteban S, Garau C, Aparicio S, Moranta D, Barceló P, Fiol MA, Rial R(5)

6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Since it contains high amount of axalates, it is advised that people with kidney and gallblader disease should consult with their doctor before consuming.
2. It may reduce the absorption of calcium for some people.
3. Etc.




No comments:

Post a comment