Wednesday, 6 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Fruits - Pineapple ( Ananas comos)

Pineapple is a species of Ananas Comos. belong to the family Bromeliaceae and native to southern Brazil and Paraguay. Today it is widely cultivated for commercial and its rich of vitamins and mineral and digesting enzyme bromelin which seems to help digestion at the end of a high protein meal. It is second only to banana as America's most favourite tropical fruit

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Protein
5. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
6. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
7. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
8. Pantothenic acid (B5)
9. Vitamin B6
10. Folate (Vitamin B9)
11. Vitamin C
12. Calcium
13. Copper
14. Iron
15. Magnesium
16. Manganese
17. Phosphorus
18. Potassium
19. Zinc
20. Etc.

Health Benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Inflammation bowel disease.
In the investigation of Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem and its effect on Colitis, found that that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly used murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, according to "Dietary supplementation with fresh pineapple juice decreases inflammation and colonic neoplasia in IL-10-deficient mice with colitis" by
Hale LP, Chichlowski M, Trinh CT, Greer PK.(a)

2. Gastrointestinal tract
In the classification of bromelain is a mixture of proteinases derived from pineapple stem and its effect in gastrointestinal tract, found that bromelain enzymes can remain intact and proteolytically active within the murine gastrointestinal tract. They provide further support for the hypothesis that oral bromelain may potentially modify inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract via local proteolytic activity within the colonic microenvironment, according to "Proteolytic activity and immunogenicity of oral bromelain within the gastrointestinal tract of mice" by Hale LP.(b)

3. Anti cancer
In the assessment of Bromelain, from pineapple and its potent anticancer effects found that bromelain-induced autophagy was positively regulated by p38 and JNK but negatively regulated by ERK½. Autophagy-inducing property of bromelain can be further exploited in breast cancer therapy, according to "Pineapple bromelain induces autophagy, facilitating apoptotic response in mammary carcinoma cells" by Bhui K, Tyagi S, Prakash B, Shukla Y.(c)

4. Type 2 Diabetes
In the study of Fifty-gram portions of five fruits containing 50 g carbohydrate, including pineapple and theirs efect on type II diabetes, found that the mean ± SEM PPPG in mmol/L were: banana, 9.0± 1.6; orange, 8.1± 0.8; pineapple, 9.2±1.1; mango, 8.0 ± 1.1; and pawpaw, 7.8±0.9. The mean ±SEM IAUGC in mmol.min/L were: banana, 131.7±53.4; orange, 108.7±29.8; pineapple, 115.3±33.2; mango, 101.6 ± 28.7; and pawpaw, 124.1± 46.1. However, mango showed the least MIPG (1.8 ± 0.5 mmol/l) followed by orange and pawpaw, according to "Glycaemic Response to some Commonly Eaten Fruits in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus" by Edo AE, Eregie A, Adediran OS, Ohwovoriole AE.(d)

5. Wound healing
In the identification of the role of aqueous extract of pineapple fruit parts and its wound healing effect found that the anti-oxidant constituents of the pineapple plant are concentrated in the flesh while the bark and flesh extracts have the potential to promote healing by stimulating tenoblast proliferation, according to "The role of aqueous extract of pineapple fruit parts on the healing of acute crush tendon injury" by Aiyegbusi AI, Duru FI, Awelimobor D, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO.(e)

6. Phospholipids and lipid peroxidation
In evaluation of the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel and its effect on brain tissues found that pineapple peel extract protects against alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues according to "Effect of pineapple peel extract on total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues of rats" by Erukainure OL, Ajiboye JA, Adejobi RO, Okafor OY, Kosoko SB, Owolabi FO.(f)

7. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(I)

2. Manganese
Manganese beside is a mineral essential for energy production and metabolism of foods, it also helps to improve immune-system functioning that reduces the risk of inflammation, according to the study of "The effects of 3, 4 or 5 amino salicylic acids on manganese-induced neuronal death: ER stress and mitochondrial complexes" by Yoon H, Lee GH, Kim DS, Kim KW, Kim HR, Chae HJ., posted in PubMed ( researchers indicated that the salicylate analogues and the antioxidants did not mediate ER stress in this model. The salicylate analogues reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reversed the deficient mitochondrial membrane potential that was induced by Mn. Taken together, the 3, 4, 5 ASA worked in a similar way, regulating the Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting cells.

3. Dietary fiber
Daily intake of right amount of fibers can prevent and treat diabetes, as increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(II)

4. Vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine beside is important in enhancing the developing red blood cells by stimulating the production of hemoglobin, it also helps to keep blood sugar levels steady during the process of breaking down stored energy in gestation pregnancy, according to the study of "Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine" by Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH., posted in PubMed (

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Aiding in digestion
Since it contains high amount of proteolytic enzyme bromelain, pineapple not only helps to break down protein and aids digestion according to the study of "The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders" by Roxas M., psoted in PubMed(1), but also reductes the risk of inflammation and colonic neoplasia, according to the study of "Dietary supplementation with fresh pineapple juice decreases inflammation and colonic neoplasia in IL-10-deficient mice with colitis" by Hale LP, Chichlowski M, Trinh CT, Greer PK., posted PubMed(2> For more information of health effects of bromelain, please visit

2. Small blood vessel wall protectionThe high amount of vitamin C also increase the flexibility of small vessel, thus decreasing the risk of internal bleeding, heart diseases and stroke, according to the study of "Effects of benfluorex-vitamin C supplementation on cutaneous capillaries of diabetic rats" by Sari Kili├žaslan SM, Ozer C., posted in PubMed(3)

3. Immune function
Bromelain also increases the immune function in fighting the invasion of foreign substances such as bacteria and virus, thus decreasing the risk of inflammation and infection according to the study of "Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro" by Secor ER Jr, Singh A, Guernsey LA, McNamara JT, Zhan L, Maulik N, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(4)

4. Thiamin
Since it contains high amount of Thiamin (Vitamin B1), pineapple increases the energy production as well as enhancing the function of antioxidants, according to the study of "Thiamine protects against paraquat-induced damage: scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species" by Jung IL, Kim IG, posted in PubMed(5)

5. Herbal medicine
In folk medicine, it believes that pineapple can help to relieve pain as well as inducing child birth if overdue.

6. Chronic rhinosinusitis
bromelain helps in maintaining open drainage and decreasing inflammation while improving tissue integrity and limiting causative factors, according to the study of "Natural treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis" by Helms S, Miller A., posted in PubMed(6)

7. Etc.

Side Effects
1. In some folk medicine, pineapple should not be consumed by people with Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, or kidney or liver disease
2. Etc.

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(I) (1)
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