Monday, 11 November 2013

#Healthy #Foods - Vegetables - Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea)

Brussels sprouts

Brussels sprout is a spcies of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea), belong to the family of Brassicaceae and was cultivated since ancient Rome.

Nutritional Supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Sugars
3. Fiber
4. Omega 3 Fatty acid
5. Protein
6. Vitamin A
7. Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
8. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
9. Niacin (Vitamin B3)
10. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)
11. Folate (Vitamin B9)
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin E
14. Vitamin K
15. Calcium
16. Copper
17. Iron
18. Magnesium
19. Manganese
20. Phosphorus
21 Potassium
22. Sodium
23. Zinc
24. Etc.


A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Detoxification
In the investigation of cruciferous vegetables, myrosinase metabolizes the relatively inactive glucosinolates into isothiocyanates and other products that have the ability to increase detoxification enzyme expression found that as predicted by the in vitro experiment, in vivo exposure to Brussels sprouts with active myrosinase resulted in greater induction of both phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in the liver and the lungs that correlated with plasma sulforaphane concentrations, according to "Induction of detoxification enzymes by feeding unblanched Brussels sprouts containing active myrosinase to mice for 2 wk"by Robbins MG, Hauder J, Somoza V, Eshelman BD, Barnes DM, Hanlon PR.(a)

2. Antioxidants
In the evaluation of consumption of the sprouts and its antioxidant effects found that Serum vitamin C levels were increased by 37% after sprout consumption but no correlations were seen between prevention of DNA-damage and individual alterations of the vitamin levels. Our study shows for the first time that sprout consumption leads to inhibition of sulfotransferases in humans and to protection against PhIP and oxidative DNA-damage, according to "Consumption of Brussels sprouts protects peripheral human lymphocytes against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and oxidative DNA-damage: results of a controlled human intervention trial"by Hoelzl C, Glatt H, Meinl W, Sontag G, Haidinger G, Kundi M, Simic T, Chakraborty A, Bichler J, Ferk F, Angelis K, Nersesyan A, Knasmüller S.(b)

3. Thyroid function
In the observation of the effect of dietary Brussels sprouts, a particularly rich source of such glucosinolates, on thyroid function found that a normal diet of 10 volunteer subjects had no effect on thyroid function as determined by measurement of thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine even though the sprouts contained high concentrations (220 mg/100 g) of glucosinolates. In view of the reported antithyroid activity of 5-vinyloxazolidine-2-thione it is suggested that this lack of activity of cooked Brussels sprouts is due to inactivation during cooking of myrosinase, the specific glucosinolate-degrading enzyme, according to "Preliminary observations on the effect of dietary brussels sprouts on thyroid function" by McMillan M, Spinks EA, Fenwick GR.(c)

4. Anti Cancers
In the classification of the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower, found that most evidence concerning anticarcinogenic effects of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and brassica vegetables has come from studies in animals. In addition, studies carried out in humans using high but still realistic human consumption levels of indoles and brassica vegetables have shown putative positive effects on health. The combination of epidemiological and experimental data provide suggestive evidence for a cancer preventive effect of a high intake of brassica vegetables, found that "Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms" by
van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA.(d)

5. Type 2 diabetes
In the determination of young broccoli sprouts improve oxidative stress status in diabetic condition found that 63 patients in three groups were included in the analysis: 10 g/d BSP (n=21), 5 g/d (n=22) and placebo (n=20). After 4 weeks, consumption of BSP resulted in significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0.001 for treatment effect), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.03 for treatment effect), OSI (P=0.001 for treatment effect) and significant increase in Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P=0.001 for treatment effect), according to "Broccoli sprouts reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial" by Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Hosseinpanah F, Hedayati M, Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Azizi F.(e)

6. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

2. Vitamin CIn the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(1)

3. ManganeseIt is one of important trace in preventing osteoporosis, according to the study of "[Study of estrogen deficiency impact on manganese levels in teeth and mandible of rats after ovariectomy]. [Article in Polish]" by Rahnama M, Błoniarz J, Zareba S, Swiatkowski W.(1)and regulating blood sugar level, according to the study of "[An inadequate intake of manganese may favour insulin resistance in girls]. [Article in Spanish]" by Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Bermejo LM, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM.(2)

4. Dietary fiberDaily intake of right amount of fibers can prvent and treata. Diabetes, as Increased consumption of vegetables, whole grains, and soluble and insoluble fiber is associated with improved glucose metabolism in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis were more evident in participants following a plant-based diet compared with other commonly used diets, according to the study of "Efficacy of high-fiber diets in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus" by Wolfram T, Ismail-Beigi F.(3)

5. FolateIn the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(4)
6. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Antioxidants
Since brussels sprouts contains phyto-nutrients and antioxidants such as vitamin A and C, it helps to improve the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals, thus decreasing the risk of irregular cell growth, including tumor and cancer, according to "Antioxidants - Cancers and Diseases - Section Antioxidants"(I)

2. Body cleansing and detoxification.
Brussels sprouts, contains high amounts of vitamin C which play a major role, acting as cofactors for many enzyme systems including those of liver detoxification, in cleansing the body toxins, according to "[Features of vitamin C metabolism and the functional status of the liver in alcoholism and alcoholic delirium in the stage of detoxification therapy].
[Article in Russian]" Shugaleĭ IuS.(II)

3. Rheumatoid arthritis
Brussels sprout contains high amount of antioxidants that enhances the immune system fighting against inflammation thus reducing the risk of chronic inflammation of the joints, according to "Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis" by Rosenbaum CC, O'Mathúna DP, Chavez M, Shields K.(III)

4. Heart diseases
Brussels sprout contains high amount of fiber which helps to bind the bad cholesterol from forming plague attached to the arterial walls, thus reducing the risk of heart diseases, according to "Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk" by Bazzano LA.(IV)

5. Folate (Vitamin B9)
Folate can help prevent serious the neural tube defect causes of neural tube fails to close completely during the early weeks of pregnancy, causing to severe physical disabilities and developmental delay, according to "Folate and neural tube defects" by Pitkin RM.(V)
6. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Allergic effect
2. Mild oxalates can cause health problem for people with untreated kidney and gallbladder diseases.
3. Overcooking causes the releases sulfurous odor, dislike by some people.
4. No other known side effect.

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