Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy Foods - Turnip greens (Brassica)

Turnip Green
Turnip Green is a genus Brassica, belongs to the family Brassicaceae, a root vegetable commonly grown in regions between the tropics and the polar circles, in between summer and winter worldwide for its roots for human consumption, but most of them for lives stock feed.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin B1
7. Vitamin B2
8. Vitamin B3
9. Vitamin B5
10. Folate (Vitamin B9)
11. Vitamin C
12. Vitamin K
13. Calcium
14. Magnesium
15. Potassium
16. Iron
17. Copper
18. Phosphorus
19. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to studies
1. Antinutritional factors
In the observation of the effect of blanching on the antinutritional content was studied in cabbage, turnip, collard, sweetpotato and peanut leaves found that blanching is recommended as an effective method for reducing the antinutritional factors in green vegetables, however, further investigation on the heating times for both conventional and microwave blanching methods has been suggested, according to "Effect of blanching on the content of antinutritional factors in selected vegetables" by Mosha TC, Gaga HE, Pace RD, Laswai HS, Mtebe K.(a)

2. Phenolic components
In the investigation of Phenolic components of mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa, found that identification of 71 phenolic compounds consisting of kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside-7-O-glucoside derivatives, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-glucoside hydroxycinnamoyl gentiobioses, hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids, and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids. Ten of the compounds, 3-O-diacyltriglucoside-7-O-glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin, had not been previously reported. The phenolic component profiles of these vegetables were significantly different than those of the leafy vegetables from B. oleracea, according to "Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy, and 15 other brassica vegetables" by Lin LZ, Harnly JM.(b)

3. Carotenoid
In assessment of carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein) in 2,458 fruits, vegetables, and multicomponent foods containing fruits and vegetables, found that collard, mustard, or turnip greens, spinach and broccoli are the main ontribution of lutein + zeaxanthin, according to "The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables, and selected multicomponent foods" by Chug-Ahuja JK, Holden JM, Forman MR, Mangels AR, Beecher GR, Lanza E.(c)

d. Vitamin B12
In the evaluation of vitamin B12 in Turnip greens found that vitamin Bi2 was present in the
leaves of a higher plant in amounts. there is no evidence supporting the synthesis of vitamin Bi2 by a higher plant. Was it produced by soil microorganisms and subsequently absorbed via the plant roots? There is ample proof of such synthetic activity by certain microorganisms and of vitamin B12 activity in soil , but no evidence that the vitamin B]2molecule is absorbed by the plant from the soil. Could it have been produced by bacteria living epiphytically
on the turnip leaf? Ericson and Lewis ('54) postulated such a relationship in their studies of vitamin Bt2 compounds found in certain algae, according to "STUDIES OF VITAMIN B12IN TUENIP GREENS" by LOUISE F. GEAY ANDLOUISE J. DANIEL(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(2)

3. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(3)

4. Folate
In the investigation of the prevalence and multifactorial etiology of anemia among Indian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and its effect on anemia, found that Anemia, particularly iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, is highly prevalent among children with HIV infection. Micronutrient supplements (iron and, folate) combined with ART(antiretroviral therapy) improved anemia in HIV-infected children, according to "The prevalence and etiology of anemia among HIV-infected children in India" by Shet A, Arumugam K, Rajagopalan N, Dinakar C, Krishnamurthy S, Mehta S, Shet AS.(4)

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Lung
Turpip green besides enhances the lung function in removing toxins entail the excretion of carbon dioxide, it also reduces the risk of inflammation causes of emphysema as a result of second hand smoke due to Vitamin A deficiency. In study of "Vitamin A for preventing acute lower respiratory tract infections in children up to seven years of age" by Chen H, Zhuo Q, Yuan W, Wang J, Wu T., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254093), researchers found that this unexpected result is outside our current understanding of the use of vitamin A for preventing acute LRTIs. Accordingly, vitamin A should not be given to all children to prevent acute LRTIs. There is evidence for vitamin A supplements to prevent acute LRTIs in children with low serum retinol or those with a poor nutritional status.

2. Antioxidant
Turnip green contains high amount of vitamin antioxidants that helps to neutralize the levels of cholesterol against the forming of free radical causes of the clumping of platelets and oxidation of bad cholesterol (LDL), according to the study of "A comparative study of antioxidant vitamins and simvastatin in hypercholesterolimic rabbits" by Syed NI, Arshad S, Syed AA, Ahmad M, Khan FZ, Ahmad B., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959808).

3. Paraoxonase and Fetal growth
Paraoxonaseare is a group of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphates in the A-oxonzse family helped to breaks down acetylcholinesterase inhibitors before they bind to the cholinestarases, thus protecting women from harm by low dose of organophosphate pesticides exposure that can lead tolow birth weight. In the study of "Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in mexican-american women" by Harley KG, Huen K, Aguilar Schall R, Holland NT, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21904599)

4. Beta carotene
Beta carotene helps in the proper functioning of the immune system in the body that supports the body in producing and maintaining healthy membranes, thus reducing the risk of auto-immune condition of rheumatoid arthritis, according to the study of "Serum concentrations of alpha tocopherol, beta carotene, and retinol preceding the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus" by Comstock GW, Burke AE, Hoffman SC, Helzlsouer KJ, Bendich A, Masi AT, Norkus EP, Malamet RL, Gershwin ME., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9175934), researchers indicated that These findings support those of a previous study that low antioxidant status is a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis. They suggest a similar association for systemic lupus erythematosus.

5. Osteoporosis
Magnesium beside enhances the body in absorption of calcium readily and prevents parathyroid hormone cause of low bone density (according to the study of "A case of magnesium deficiency associated with insufficient parathyroid hormone action and severe osteoporosis" by Kanazawa I, Yamamoto M, Yamaguchi T, Yamauchi M, Yano S, Sugimoto T., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18048993), it also promotes calcitonin hormone in aiding the extraction of calcium from tissues and blood into the bones and vitamin D function in absorbing calcium, according to the study of "Hypomagnesemia with increased metabolism of parathyroid hormone and reduced responsiveness to calcitropic hormones" by Mori S, Harada S, Okazaki R, Inoue D, Matsumoto T, Ogata E.", posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1392187)

6. Etc.

Side effect
1. Oxalates
a) Since turnip green contains a certain amount of oxalates, excessive accumulation can cause problem for people with existing or untreated kidney or gallbladder problems.
b) Oxalates can also interfere with the absorption of calcium by the body.
2. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8577655
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20465307
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8440830
(d) http://jn.nutrition.org/content/67/4/623.full.pdf

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859436
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22009132

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