Tuesday, 5 November 2013

#Healthy Foods - Tomatoes (Solanum)

Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belongs to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose
and often in green house.

Nutritional supplements
1. Carbohydrates
2. Dietary fiber
3. Fat
4. Protein
5. Vitamin A
6. Vitamin B1
7. Vitamin B2
8. Vitamin B3
9. Vitamin B5
10. Vitamin B6
11. Folate
12. Vitamin C
13. Vitamin E
14. Molybdenum
15. Magnesium
16. Manganese
17. Copper
18. Potassium
19. Chromium
20. Etc.

Health benefits
A. Health benefits according to stuies
1. Prostate diseases
In the evaluation of phytochemical compound lycopene in tomatoes and it anti prostate disease effects found that regular consumption of these foods can be recommended for the prevention of PCA. Tomato products might also be useful in the therapy for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCA). The intake of isolated lycopene does not protect from the development of PCA. However, in the doses achieved by consumption of tomato products, lycopene ingestion might also be effective in PCA therapy, according to "[Tomatoes and lycopene in prevention and therapy--is there an evidence for prostate diseases?]. [Article in German]" by Ellinger S, Ellinger J, Müller SC, Stehle P.(a)

2. Cardiovascular diseases
In the review of patents and products within the context of lycopene and CVD prevention and health claims indicated that in vitro data and results from animal experiments partly showed promising preventive mechanisms of lycopene. In contrast, until now, human intervention studies mostly failed to show any CVD prevention. However, there is still an encouraging situation, giving hints for antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. These mechanisms could be the background for cardio-protective effects of tomatoes and tomato products, according to "Lycopene and heart health" by Böhm V.(b)

3. Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities
In the research of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds and their benefit in nutrition and human health found that Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent, according to "Free Amino Acid and Phenolic Contents and Antioxidative and Cancer Cell-Inhibiting Activities of Extracts of 11 Greenhouse-Grown Tomato Varieties and 13 Tomato-Based Foods" by Choi SH, Kim HR, Kim HJ, Lee IS, Kozukue N, Levin CE, Friedman M.(c)

4. Urological tumors
In the investigation of In the areas of the consumption of tomatoes and its effect on urological tumors found that the effectiveness of the substances zoledronate and denosumab has been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. The authors recommend that the scientifically neglected field of tertiary prevention of urological tumors should in future be included as a core factor of scientific investigations, according to "[Secondary and tertiary prevention of urological tumors].[Article in German]" by Schmitz-Dräger BJ, Lümmen G, Bismarck E, Fischer C; die Mitglieder des Arbeitskreises Prävention, Umwelt und Komplementärmedizin (PUK).(d)

5. Etc.

B. Health benefits according to concentration
1. Vitamin C
In the evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction. and it effects on pulmonary dysfunction found that At present, evidence from randomised-controlled trials is insufficient to recommend a specific role for vitamin C in the treatment of asthma. Further methodologically strong and large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed in order to address the question of the effectiveness of vitamin C in children with asthma but some outcome data showed effectiveness on lung function, symptom scores, IgE levels and inhaled steroid use. One small study showed a significant difference in % drop in FEV1 post-exercise, according to the study of "Vitamin C supplementation for asthma" by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Arnold E.(1)

2. Vitamin A
Vitamin A is not only important in preventing types I diabetes, according to "A close relationship between type 1 diabetes and vitamin A-deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase and hyaluronidase activities in skin tissues" by Takahashi N, Takasu S.(1) but also may be associated with compromised bone health, according to "Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D" by Ahmadieh H, Arabi A.(2)

3. Vitamin K
Vitamin K not only plays an important role in protecting our skin from aging, it is also needed for the proper clotting of blood, thus decreasing the risk of excessive bleeding, in a study of "Delayed vitamin K deficiency as a cause of bleeding: still a concern in the 21st century!" by Kasatkar P, Shetty S, Ghosh K., posted in PubMed, researchers found that Laboratory tests confirmed acquired bleeding diathesis due to vitamin K deficiency, which was corrected after adequate vitamin K supplementation. VKDB is not an uncommon phenomenon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with bleeding diathesis.

4. Potassium
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of "Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia" by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium concentration decreases.

5. Etc.

C. Other health benefits
1. Lycopene
Lycopene, one of the powerful antioxidant in tomatoes, not only helps the immune system in neutralizing the forming of free radicals in the body and according to Harvard investigation as it found that men who ate more than 10 servings tomato-based foods daily (like cooked tomatoes and tomato sauce,) had a 35 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those who ate the least amount of these foods. The benefits of lycopene was more pronounced with advanced stages of prostate cancer. Also according to the study of "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with lycopene in the TRAMP model" by Konijeti R, Henning S, Moro A, Sheikh A, Elashoff D, Shapiro A, Ku M, Said JW, Heber D, Cohen P, Aronson WJ., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687227)

2. Antiaging
Tomato beside prevents the progressive loss of structure, function or death of neurons, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases, According to the study of "Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in neurodegenerative diseases" by Rao AV, Balachandran B, posted in PubMed , it also contains vitamin C that helps to releases of histamine (local immune responses), thus increasing the detoxification of histamine, according to the study of "Effect of ascorbic acid on histamine metabolism in scorbutic guinea-pigs" by I B Chatterjee, S D Gupta, A K Majumder, B K Nandi, and N Subramanian, posted in The Journal of Physiology, researchers indicated that The increased histamine content of the urine, blood and other tissues in the ascorbic-acid-depleted condition could be brought back to normal levels by administration of a single dose of ascorbic acid 5 mg/100 g body wt.

3. Detoxification
Liver is a second defense that helps to clean out the toxins accumulation in the blood body. If the liver is over work, it can cause liver congestion, leading to lower of bile production or weaken carbohydrate metabolism. Since tomato contains high amount of Vitamins A and C, it not only supports liver function but stimulates the liver's function in detoxification of toxins., according to the study of "Effects of dried fish on antioxidant levels in rat liver" by Anilakumar KR, Khanum F, Krishna KR, Viswanathan KR., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12597022)

4. Antiseptic
Tomato is considered as antiseptic natural foods including natural antiseptic agent ascorbic acid that helps to enhance the immune system in guarding our body against the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction, according to the article of "The 7 Benefits Of Drinking Lemon Water" posted in Simple Health Cures.

5. Etc.

Side effect
1. Since tomato is belong to the family Solanaceae, it can cause arthritis symptoms for some people.
2. Tomato leaves and stems contain atropine and tropane alkaloids that are toxic.
3. Etc.

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(a) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19177320
(b) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076972
(c) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070764
(d) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21947262

(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967159

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