Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Asthma (Respiratory Disease) Treatments In herbal medicine perspective

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
I. Asthma 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. In the study of 463,801 children aged 13-14 years in 155 collaborating centres in 56 countries. Children self-reported, through one-page questionnaires, symptoms of these three atopic disorders. In 99 centres in 42 countries, a video asthma questionnaire was also used for 304,796 children, found that for asthma symptoms, the highest 12-month prevalences were from centres in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Republic of Ireland, followed by most centres in North, Central, and South America; the lowest prevalences were from centres in several Eastern European countries, Indonesia, Greece, China, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, India, and Ethiopia(1). In the United States, approximately, asthma affects 25 million people, 7 million of them are children.
F. Treatments 
F.2. In herbal medicine perspective
1. Garlic
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. It has been used popularly in traditional and Chinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the Plague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc,. In the study to investigate the effect of 1, 2, and 3 times intraperitoneal injections of aged garlic extract on an established allergic airway inflammation in murine model (BALB/c mice), researchers at the Tarbiat Modares University, showed that aged garlic extract has the potential of attenuation of inflammatory features of allergic airway inflammation in murine model(81).
2. Onions
The onion is a plants in the genus Allium, belongs to the family Alliaceae, a close relation of garlic. It It is often called the “king of vegetables” because of its pungent taste and found in a large number of recipes and preparations spanning almost the totality of the world’s cultures. Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy, pungent, mild or sweet.In the study to investigate Lyophilized onion extract and ether extracts of onions were separated by chromatographic methods into several subfractions and tested for their effects on asthmatic reactions of guinea pigs to allergen, histamine, acetylcholine and platelet-activating factor (PAF) inhalation as well as on thromboxane biosynthesis of human platelets and lung fibroblasts, found that ooils are counteracting the bronchial obstruction due to PAF inhalation(82).
3. Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Family Myrtaceae) is a plant of Australian origin, with a reported therapeutic use in airway inflammatory diseases. In the study to evaluate the effects of  a water extract of E. globulus leaves for its putative in vitro scavenging effects on ROS (HO(*), O(2)(*-), ROO(*), and H(2)O(2)) and RNS ((*)NO and ONOO(-)) and on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the extract’s phenolic composition, showed that phytochemical analysis showed the presence of polyphenols such as flavonoids (rutin and quercitrin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid), which may be partially responsible for the observed antioxidant activity. These observations provide further support, beyond the well-known antibacterial and antiviral activities of the Eucalyptus plant, for its reported use in traditional medicine such as in the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases, considering the important role of ROS and RNS in the inflammatory process(83).
4. Other herbs
In the study to assess the efficacy of water-soluble plant polysaccharides isolated from pharmacopoeic raw material on anaphylactic shock and production of IgE and IgG1 by lymphocytes from mice immunized with ovalbumin, found that treatment with polysaccharides from coltsfoot, sweet flag, clover, Artemisia, marigold, and elecampane reduced animal mortality after induction of anaphylactic shock. In addition, injection of these substances reduced serum concentrations of IgE and IgG1. These substances can be regarded as promising agents for the treatment of IgE-dependent diseases (atopic dermatitis, asthma, atopic rhinitis, urticaria, food allergies, etc.)(84).
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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9643741
(81) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18780948
(82) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3570522
(83) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19298212
(84) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19526097 

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