Tuesday, 26 November 2013

Asthma (Respiratory Disease) – Asthma Prevention: The Diet

Respiratory Disease is defined as medical conditions which affect the breathing organ and tissues including Inflammatory lung disease, Obstructive lung diseases, Restrictive lung diseases, Respiratory tract infections, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, the nerves and  muscles breathing , etc,.
I. Asthma 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the air way of the lung with recurring symptoms, such as wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The disease affects people of all ages, and mostly starts during childhood. In the study of 463,801 children aged 13-14 years in 155 collaborating centres in 56 countries. Children self-reported, through one-page questionnaires, symptoms of these three atopic disorders. In 99 centres in 42 countries, a video asthma questionnaire was also used for 304,796 children, found that for asthma symptoms, the highest 12-month prevalences were from centres in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Republic of Ireland, followed by most centres in North, Central, and South America; the lowest prevalences were from centres in several Eastern European countries, Indonesia, Greece, China, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, India, and Ethiopia(1). In the United States, approximately, asthma affects 25 million people, 7 million of them are children.
E.3. Foods to prevent asthma
1. Apple
Diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases. In the study of Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits, found that apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit(62).
2. Artichoke and Strawberries
Gallic acid (Strawberries) and caffeic acids (Artichoke) are reported to modulate allergic reactions via unknown mode(s) of action. In the stufy to evaluate whether both phenolic acids share a common mode of action with the two asthma drugs, suggest that certain anti-inflammatory phytochemicals including gallic acid and wedelolactone may modulate inflammatory allergic action via their agonism at GPR35. GPR35 may represent a target for the treatment of allergic disorders including asthma(63).
3. Flax and Sunflower seeds
Omega 3 fatty acid is types of phytochemical found abundantly in flax and sunflower seeds
In the study  to assess the relation between observed levels of omega-3 fatty acids in plasma and symptoms of asthma and atopy in children at 18 months of age, showed that omega-3 fatty acid levels were expressed in quintiles of exposure ‘as treated’ without reference to treatment group allocation. Wheeze ever, doctor visits for wheeze, bronchodilator use and nocturnal coughing were significantly reduced in children in the higher exposure quintiles. Serum IgE was reduced in the highest quintile but not significantly so. There was no difference in diagnosed asthma or atopy between the exposure quintiles. Although wheeze at this age may not be a good indicator of asthma in later childhood, it is encouraging that some symptoms have been reduced in children with high omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in plasma(64).
4. Tomato
Lycopene, a phytochemical found abundantly in tomato. In the study to investigate the effects of lycopene, on allergic inflammation, in a mouse model of AAD. BALB/c mice receiving lycopene supplement or control were intraperitoneally sensitised and intranasally challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce AAD, found that supplementation with lycopene reduces allergic inflammation both in the lungs and systemically, by decreasing Th2 cytokine responses. Thus, lycopene supplementation may have a protective effect against asthma(65).
5. Peaches, organic orange juice
Peach contains high amount of vitamin C which may be used to prevent and treat asthma.
In this double blind clinical trial study to evaluated 60 patients with chronic stable asthma. The patients were divided into two groups (A and B) including 30 patients in each group. group A received 1000 mg vitamin C daily and group B received placebo, found that The mean (±SD) leukocyte vitamin C level in group A at the baseline and after one month treatment with 1000 mg/day vitamin C, were 0.0903 (±0.0787) µg/108 leukocytes and 0.1400 (±0.0953) µg/108 leukocytes respectively (P<0.05). The mean (±SD) leukocyte vitamin C level in group B at the baseline and after one month administration of placebo, were 0.0867 (±0.0629) µg/108 leukocytes and 0.0805(±0.0736) µg/108 leukocytes respectively. The leukocyte vitamin C level in group A was higher than those of group B after one month treatment with vitamin C and placebo and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05)(66)
6. Etc.
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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9643741
(62) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15140261
(63) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22488351
(64) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15610365
(65) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20392623
(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22592572

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