Monday, 25 November 2013

Antioxidants and Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is defined as a condition of thinning of bone and bone tissues as a result of  the loss of bone density over a long period of time.
B. Antioxidants and Osteoporosis
Generalized partial linear model (GPLM) is found to be effective in determining nonlinear effects of an important continuous-scale risk factor. The final GPLM model shows that TCM symptoms play an important role in assessing the risk of osteoporosis. The GPLM also reveals a nonlinear effect of the important risk factor, menopause years, which might be missed by the generalized linear model.
1. In the study to evaluate whether antioxidant defenses are decreased in elderly osteoporotic women and, if this is the case, to understand whether osteoporosis is a condition characterized by increased oxidative stress, researchers at the Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, found that dietary and endogenous antioxidants were consistently lower in osteoporotic than in control subjects. On the other hand, plasma levels of malondialdehyde, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, did not differ between groups. Our results reveal that antioxidant defenses are markedly decreased in osteoporotic women. The mechanisms underlying antioxidant depletion and its relevance to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis deserve further investigation(32).
2. Selenium plus vitamins E and C
In the study to to investigate the effect of heparin on osteoporosis initiation, and the effect of selenium plus vitamins E and C, and the sole combination of vitamins E and C on the progress of osteoporosis induced by heparin through histologic means, showed that the combination of vitamins E and C given to the experimental rabbits partially prevented this bone tissue destruction. When sodium selenite was given together with vitamins E and C to the osteoporosis model rabbits, the long bone tissue had almost the same structure as in normal rabbits, for example the development of numerous bone trabeculae(33).
3. Vitamin C
According to the study epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. In the study of Vitamin C prevents hypogonadal bone loss by School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan indicated that the ingestion of vitamin C prevents the low-turnover bone loss following ovariectomy in mice. This prevention in areal bone mineral density and micro-CT parameters results from the stimulation of bone formation, demonstrable in vivo by histomorphometry, bone marker measurements, and quantitative PCR. Notably, the reductions in the bone formation rate, plasma osteocalcin levels, and ex vivo osteoblast gene expression 8 weeks post-ovariectomy are all returned to levels of sham-operated controls(34).
4. Calcium and vitamin D 
Calcium supplements reduce the rate of bone loss in osteoporotic patients. Some recent studies have reported a significant positive effect of calcium treatment not only on bone mass but also on fracture incidence. The SENECA study, has also shown that vitamin D insufficiency is frequent in elderly populations in Europe. There are a number of studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone loss in the elderly, showing that supplementations with daily doses of 400-800 IU of vitamin D, given alone or in combination with calcium, are able to reverse vitamin D insufficiency, to prevent bone loss and to improve bone density in the elderly, according to the Dr. Gennari C. by Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Siena(35)
5. Etc.
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