Tuesday, 6 December 2016

The holistic Prevention, Management and Treatment of Dementia - Substance Abused Causes of Dementia

Kyle J. Norton (Scholar) 
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.

                           Substance Abused Causes of Dementia

Illicit drug used may cause nervous system impairment due to their direct and indirect effects on the integrity and function of nervous system tissue, probably through immune altered effects(124). Injection drug users has shown to increase risk of dementia, up to 40% of patients with HIV infection(125)

1. Heroin
Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate (INN)), also known as diamorphine (BAN), an opiate drug extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant, showed to induce dysfunction of different components of cortico-striatal (forebrain) circuitry in response to recognition memory, spatial working memory, planning, sequence generation, visual discrimination learning, and attentional set-shifting of groups of subjects(126).

2. Cocaine and Methamphetamine
Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine) (INN), a crystalline tropane alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the coca plant showed to induce rapidly accelerating HIV dementia accompanied by seizures and an unusual movement disorder(127).

3. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Lysergic acid diethylamide, abbreviated LSD or LSD-25, also known as lysergide and colloquially as acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug used to treat patients with mental disorders may temporarily alter the thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synaesthesia, an altered sense of time, etc.(128), but regain the ability to judge, to acquire competence and new learning, to focus attention and concentrate, to recall and retrieve relevant information(129)

4. Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA
Ecstasy, a highly addictive drug, is a powerful CNS stimulant with chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and hallucinogen mescaline induced confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, and severe anxiety(130).

5. Other illicit drugs
According to the study at University of Rostock, Dr. Büttner A., drug abuse represents a significant health issue. The major substances abused substances including cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 'ecstasy'. altered intracellular messenger pathways, transcription factors and immediate early genes within the brain reward system may lead to cardiovascular complications, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms due to their widespread disturbances within the complex network of central nervous system in cell-to-cell interaction(131).

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(124) Neurologic disease in injection drug users: therapeutic issues by Royal W 3rd1.(PubMed)
(125) Antiretroviral therapy for drug users by Clarke SM1, Mulcahy FM.(PubMed)
(126) Profiles of cognitive dysfunction in chronic amphetamine and heroin abusers by Ornstein TJ1, Iddon JL, Baldacchino AM, Sahakian BJ, London M, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW.(PubMed)
(127) Acceleration of HIV dementia with methamphetamine and cocaine by Nath A1, Maragos WF, Avison MJ, Schmitt FA, Berger JR.(PubMed)
(128) Lysergic acid diethylamide(Wikipedia)
(129) The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs by Edward M. Brecher and the Editors of Consumer Reports Magazine, 1972(Schaffer library and drug policy)
(130) Publications - DrugFacts(National institute on drug abuse)
(131) Review: The neuropathology of drug abuse by Büttner A1.(PubMed)

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