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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Dementia is defined as neuro degeneration syndrome among elder, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement over 47 millions
of worldwide population, mostly in the West. The evaluation of the syndrome by holistic medicine has been lacking, especially through conventional medicine research and studies.
Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder named for German physician Alois Alzheimer. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, effecting memory, thinking and behavior severe enough to affect language communication, memory, lifelong hobbies or social life.
2. Stroke (Vascular problems)
Strokes caused by uncontrolled diet with high in saturated and trans fats, can lead to bad cholesterol building up(88) in blocking the circulation of blood to the body, thus increasing volume of infarction, in the brain(89). If oxygen is not delivered to the brain cells, some cells die off and can not reproduce(90), causing stroke(89). Others happen, when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures(91), it causes the cells in your brain deprived of oxygen with symptoms of vascular dementia(92)(93)(94).
According to the prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and post-stroke dementia by University Department of Clinical Neurology, 10% of patients had dementia before first stroke, 10% developed new dementia soon after first stroke, and more than a third had dementiaafter recurrent stroke(95).
3. Dementia with Lewy bodies
Lewy bodies is a condition of spherical masses displaced other cell components with symptoms of fluctuating cognitive ability with pronounced variations in attention and alertness, recurrent visual hallucinations and spontaneous motor features, including akinesia, rigidity and tremor(97). Abnormal aggregates of protein develop inside nerve cells are also found in Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy Body Dementia and some other disorders.(96). According to Mayo Clinic in MRI analysis of the characterizing the tissue abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer diseaseand DLB, loss of tissues due to increased amygdalar diffusivity in dementiawith Lewy bodies (DLB) may be related to small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, a common pathology associated with Lewy body disease(98).
4. Fronto-temporal dementia
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) or Pick's disease is clinical syndrome caused by degeneration of the frontal lobe(lobes of the brain lying immediately behind the forehead) of the brain, lead to symptoms ofdepression and executive dysfunction triggering the loss of autonomy, the risk of fall and of malnutrition in elderly patients(100). Early diagnosis of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is often difficult because of the non-specific presentation, a delayed-gross estimation of injury or dysfunction of the frontal lobe(99).
5. Progressive supranuclear palsy
Progressive supranuclear palsy, a condition of a movement disorder occurred as a result of damage to certain nerve cells with relatively specific patterns of atrophy, involving the brainstem, the latter frontoparietal regions, pontine tegmentum and the left frontal eye field(102) in the brain may lead to serious and progressive problems with control of gait and balance, including an inability to aim the eyes properly(101).
6. Korsakoff's syndrome
Korsakoff's syndrome, named after Sergei Korsakoff, a Russian neuropsychiatris, a neurological disorder caused by deficiency of Vitamin B1 (thiamine) in the brain and associated closely to chronic alcohol abuse and/or severe malnutrition, can lead to spontaneous alternation performance impaired in PTD accompanied by a significant reduction (30%) in phosphorylated synapsin I(103). Korsakoff's syndrome has been linked to neurotoxic effect of chronic alcohol consumption causes of medial thalami, mammillary bodies, and corpus callosum(104)
According to University of Campinas (Unicamp), the main causes of thiamine deficiency and viral infection or toxins in the blood, other adjunct factors, include magnesium depletion and chronic alcohol misuse, in the development of Korsakoff's syndrome(105)
7. Binswanger's disease
Binswanger disease also known as subcortical vascular dementia is a type of small vessel vascular dementia caused by microscopic areas of damage to the deep layers of white matter in the brain, including mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons in transmitting signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.
Binswanger's disease frequency increased with age, independent of other risk factors, is associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) deficits in selected cognitive functions(106). The disease is considered as
a progressive dementia, depression and "subcortical" dysfunction such as gait abnormalities, rigidity and neurogenic bladder(107). Control of hypertension may help prevent further progression of white matterdisease(107).
8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition of the progressive failure of the immune system caused by HIV, a lentivirus, originated HIV invasion of CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), through progression of chronic inflammation induced dysfunction in neurons and astrocytes(star-shaped glial cells in the brain)(108). The presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (in systemic inflammation) may also increase the risk of the development of neurological dysfunction(109).
9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a form of incurable, fatal, degenerative neurological disorder cause of rapid decrease of mental function and movement due to the infectious replicate protein, including symptoms of Mild Cognitive Impairment resembled the final stages of Alzheimer's disease,inexplicable visual disturbances(110).
10. Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease is a condition of a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system causes of shaking (tremors) and difficulty with walking, movement, etc. with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. According to study, in a survey of all stages of disease and 18.38 % demented from patients, caregiver and both, spychotic symptoms, mood/Apathy, and impulse control disorders are accounted for 66.63 % of the variance(111).
11. Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease is a condition of a neurodegenerative genetic disorder affected the muscle coordination causes of cognitive decline and psychiatric problems(17). Impairments of patients with Huntington's disease include speed of processing, initiation, and attention measuresin linear regression(112).
12. Motor Neurone disease (MND)
Motor neuron disease is a group of neurological disorders affected the motor neurones, located in the central nervous system (CNS), causes of cognitive and behavioural changes(113)
13. Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is a condition of an inflammatory disease due to the damage of the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord, responded to vision, speech, walking, writing, and memory(114).
Midlife and late-life obesity may increase the risk of dementia. In 480 persons with incident dementia, risk of dementia was associated to patients with for obese (BMI >30) and uderweight persons (BMI <20) but not overweight (BMI >25-30)(115).
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(88) A high fat, high cholesterol diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pigs--a metabolomic study by Sun J1, Monagas M2, Jang S2, Molokin A2, Harnly JM1, Urban JF Jr2, Solano-Aguilar G2, Chen P3.(PubMed)
(89 Long-term exposure to high fat diet is bad for your brain: exacerbation of focal ischemic brain injury by Langdon KD1, Clarke J, Corbett D.(PubMed)
(90) Brain repair: cell therapy in stroke by Kalladka D1, Muir KW1.(PubMed)
(91) Microglial responses after ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage.by Taylor RA1, Sansing LH.(PubMed)
(92) Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia: a statement for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association by Gorelick PB, Scuteri A, Black SE, Decarli C, Greenberg SM, Iadecola C, Launer LJ, Laurent S, Lopez OL, Nyenhuis D, Petersen RC, Schneider JA, Tzourio C,Arnett DK, Bennett DA, Chui HC, Higashida RT, Lindquist R, Nilsson PM, Roman GC, Sellke FW, Seshadri S; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention, and Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia.(PubMed)
(93) Mild cognitive impairment in stroke patients with ischemic cerebral small-vessel disease: a forerunner of vascular dementia by Grau-Olivares M1, Arboix A.(PubMed)
(94) Risk of incident stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease or vascular dementia by Imfeld P1, Bodmer M, Schuerch M, Jick SS, Meier CR.(PubMed)
(95) Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and post-stroke dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Pendlebury ST1, Rothwell PM.(PubMed)
(96) Lewy body(Wikipedia)
(97) Visual signs and symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies by Armstrong RA1(PubMed)
(98) Dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease: neurodegenerative patterns characterized by DTI by Kantarci K1, Avula R, Senjem ML, Samikoglu AR, Zhang B, Weigand SD, Przybelski SA, Edmonson HA, Vemuri P, Knopman DS, Ferman TJ, Boeve BF,Petersen RC, Jack CR Jr.(PubMed)
(99) Saccade impairments in patients with fronto-temporal dementia by Meyniel C1, Rivaud-Péchoux S, Damier P, Gaymard B.(PubMed)
(100) [Depression and frontal dysfunction: risks for the elderly?].[Article in French]by Thomas P1, Hazif Thomas C, Billon R, Peix R, Faugeron P, Clément JP.(PubMed)
(101) Neuroanatomical correlates of the progressive supranuclear palsy corticobasal syndrome hybrid by Josephs KA1, Eggers SD, Jack CR Jr, Whitwell JL.(PubMed)
(102) Patterns of brain atrophy that differentiate corticobasal degeneration syndrome from progressive supranuclear palsy by Boxer AL1, Geschwind MD, Belfor N, Gorno-Tempini ML, Schauer GF, Miller BL, Weiner MW, Rosen HJ.(PubMed)
(103) Thiamine deficiency degrades the link between spatial behavior and hippocampal synapsin I and phosphorylated synapsin I protein levels by Resende LS1, Ribeiro AM, Werner D, Hall JM, Savage LM.(PubMed)
(104) Macrostructural abnormalities in Korsakoff syndrome compared with uncomplicated alcoholism by Pitel AL1, Chételat G, Le Berre AP, Desgranges B, Eustache F, Beaunieux H.(PubMed)
(105) Anorexia nervosa and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: a case report by Saad L1, Silva LF, Banzato CE, Dantas CR, Garcia C Jr.(PubMed)
(106) The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger's report. A review by Pantoni L1, Garcia JH.(PubMed)
(107) Senile dementia of the Binswanger's type.by Olsen CG1, Clasen ME.(PubMed)
(108) Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex: role of cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage.by Aquaro S1, Ronga L, Pollicita M, Antinori A, Ranazzi A, Perno CF.(PubMed)
(109) Intracerebral cytokine messenger RNA expression in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia by Wesselingh SL1, Power C, Glass JD, Tyor WR, McArthur JC, Farber JM, Griffin JW, Griffin DE.(PubMed)
(110) Atypical features of dementia in a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.by Pachalska M1, Kurzbauer H, Formińska-Kapuścik M, Urbanik A, Bierzyńska-Macyszyn G, Właszczuk P.(PubMed)
(111) A short scale for evaluation of neuropsychiatric disorders in Parkinson's disease: first psychometric approach by Martinez-Martin P1, Frades-Payo B, Agüera-Ortiz L, Ayuga-Martinez A.(PubMed)
(112) Huntington's disease(Wikipedia)
(113) Cognitive and functional decline in Huntington's disease: dementia criteria revisited.by Peavy GM1, Jacobson MW, Goldstein JL, Hamilton JM, Kane A, Gamst AC, Lessig SL, Lee JC, Corey-Bloom J.(PubMed)
(114) Cognitive forms of multiple sclerosis: report of a dementia case by Stoquart-Elsankari S1, Périn B, Lehmann P, Gondry-Jouet C, Godefroy O.(PubMed)
(115) Midlife and late-life obesity and the risk of dementia: cardiovascular health study by Fitzpatrick AL1, Kuller LH, Lopez OL, Diehr P, O'Meara ES, Longstreth WT Jr, Luchsinger JA.(PubMed)