Friday, 17 June 2016

Most Common Disease of 50plus: The Clinical trials and Studies of Musculo-Skeletal disorders(MSDs) - Fibromyalgia -The Phytochemicals: Cucurbitacins

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are  medical condition mostly caused by work related occupations and working environment, affecting patients’ muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves and developing over time. A community sample of 73 females and 32 males aged 85 and over underwent a standardised examination at home. Musculoskeletal pain was reported by 57% of those interviewed(1).

      Types of Musculo-Skeletal disorders in elder

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Gout
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis
4. Polymalagia Arthritis
5. Cervical myleopathy and spinal canal stenosis
6. Osteoporosis
7. Low back pain
8. Fibromyalgia


Fibromyalgia, according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 Criteria for the Classification of Fibromyalgia in the newly proposed criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia are 1) widespread pain in combination with 2) tenderness at 11 or more of the 18 specific tender point sites(a) as a result in responding to pressure.

                       The Phytochemicals

5. Cucurbitacins
Cucurbitacins found in the common pumpkins and gourds has found to process anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in redued pain through inhibition of the neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phase (second phase) of formalin-induced pain(147). The phytochemical also inhibited pain caused by chronic rheumatic disease through anti pro inflammayory cytokine activity(148).
In neuro injure response, cucurbitacins displayed anti nitric oxide, prostaglandins and inflammatory cytokines, activation of complement proteins inducing neuro damage through activation of the neuroprotection of Nrf2/ARE pathway(149).
In chronic inflammatory model, cucurbitacin R, a derivative of Cucurbitacins, reduced over expression of proinflammatory enzymes, through reducetion of all mediators, such as prostaglandin E(2), nitric oxide, and TNF-alpha production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, as well as that for TNF-alpha in human lymphocytes(150).Dr. Yuan G and professors at the Zhejiang University said, "Natural products(including cucurbitacins) play a significant role in human health in relation to the prevention and treatment of inflammatory conditions"(151).

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(147) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of cucurbitacins from Wilbrandia ebracteata by Peters RR1, Farias MR, Ribeiro-do-Valle RM.(PubMed)
(148) Nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase may participate in the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of thecucurbitacins fraction from Wilbrandia ebracteata by Peters RR1, Baier Krepsky P, Siqueira-Junior J, da Silva Rocha JC, Marques Bezerra M, de Albuquerque Ribeiro R, de Brum-Fernandes AJ, Rocha Farias M,Castro da Rocha FA, Ribeiro-do-Valle RM(PubMed)
(149) Cucurbitacins attenuate microglial activation and protect from neuroinflammatory injury through Nrf2/ARE activation and STAT/NF-κB inhibition by Park SY1, Kim YH1, Park G2.(PubMed)
(150) Cucurbitacin R reduces the inflammation and bone damage associated with adjuvant arthritis in lewis rats by suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in T lymphocytes and macrophages by Escandell JM1, Recio MC, Máñez S, Giner RM, Cerdá-Nicolás M, Ríos JL.(PubMed)
(151) Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity. by Yuan G1, Wahlqvist ML, He G, Yang M, Li D.(PubMed)

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