Monday, 6 April 2015

Top 7 Foods for reducing risk of breast cancer

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The prevalence of breast cancer has been acknowledged in the scientific community worldwide. Breast cancer widespread in women in Southeast Asian as a result of over 2 decades of economic prosperity caused by unhealthy diet is a major concern. The findings for effective treatments are ongoing with some successes, but to discover an effective prevention and treatment with little or no side effects has proven difficultly. According to statistic, the risk of getting invasive breast cancer during life time of a women is 1/8.. Detections of tumorigenesis through self observation are still the best approach to cure breast cancer in early stage but reduction of the mortality has not been accounted even with extensively modern technology in the field of diagnosis and insurance protection in Western world, needless to say of counties which have little. Emerged suggestions of healthy diet with plenty vegetables and fruits(1)(2)(3) with change of life style(4)(5)(6) may be the only choice for women in reducing risk of the diseases.
In fact, certain vegetables(7)(8) and fruits(9)(10) or chemical compounds in them have been found to effect the breast cancer lines, induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells by blocking the energy sources of the pathways, influencing the signal pathways of the proliferation of the cells or suppressing the  promoted cancers genes.

Top 7 Foods for reducing risk of breast cancer 
1.  Black Rice
Black Rice is a type of rice with enriched Anthocyanins. including Indonesian black rice and Thai jasmine black rice. It has been considered as one of nature super foods with vary antioxidants.
Anthocyanins in black rice, with oral administration of AEBR (100 mg/kg/day) to BALB/c nude mice bearing MDA-MB-453 cell xenografts significantly suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of the physiological process factors MMP-9MMP-2( enzymes involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix), and uPA(activator) in tumor tissue. Altogether, this study suggests the anticancer effects of AEBR against human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing angiogenesis(37)(38). Other chemical constituents of species of black glumed’ Njavara (Oryza sativa L.) isolation, namely, flavonolignans, tricin 4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether (compound 1) and tricin 4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether (compound 2), were also found to exert its effect on  breast cancer cell line MCF-7, causing apoptosis at concentration 40 and 30 μg/ by decreasing protein in the mitochondrial membrane, leading to chromatin condensation(39).

2. Green tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
As suggestions, regular green tea intake has been associated with an inverse risk of breast cancer, as  green tea enhanced  the production of Ki-67, a cancer antigen when compare to women who do not.(63). (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, a phytochemical in green tea was found to exert its epigenetic effects in altering the DNA methyltransferase expression in many types of cancer, including breast cancer(64). Catechins, another phytochemical of green tea, inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells and blocked carcinogenesis in breast cancer probably through the expression of translocation across membranes or for degradation, ribonucleoprotein DNA reduplication, apoptotic cascade, etc.(65). In inflammatory breast cancer, a most aggressive type of breast cancer, green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), showed decreased expression of genes that promote proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival in human breast cancer cell lines, SUM-149 and SUM-190 by reduced lymphangiogenesis-promoting genes(66) and inhibited the cell proliferation at 72 hours, after 10 microM of EGCG treatment. These suggested a possible reactivation of apoptosis, may be through the complexity of the angiogenic switch leading to the modulation of the cell migration processes against triple negative breast cancer cells(67). In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, selenium containing polysaccharides (Se-GTPs) from a new variety of selenium-enriched Ziyang green tea, in dose-dependent, exhibited an effective cell growth inhibition by inducing MCF-7 cancer cells to undergo G2/M(cell cycle) phase arrest and apoptosis by an up-regulation of p53 (tumor antigen) expression(68). Unfortunately, epidemiological data,  on incidence of breast cancer and recurrence of breast cancer, consumption of 5 or more cups of green tea a day showed a non-statistically significant trend towards the prevention of breast cancer development. Evidence indicates that green tea consumption may possibly help prevent breast cancer recurrence in early stage (I and II) cancers(69).

3. Red wine
Red wine, made from the pigments of grape varieties is a wine involved extraction of color, and flavour components from the grape skin.
Red wine phenolics piceatannol and myricetin showed to inhibit the profileration of estrogens hormone-dependent breast cancer cells by binding to the gene expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, which interacts with responsive DNA sequences located within the promoter region of target genes(70). Catechin hydrate (CH), an antioxidant in red wine, induced apotoposis against MCF-7 cells, with the rate of 40.7% and 41.16% in the volume of 150 μg/ml CH in 24 hours, respectively. Moreover, a 48-hour exposure to 150 μg/ml CH and 300 μg/ml CH resulted in 43.73% and 52.95% apoptotic cells, through its ability to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3, -8, and -9 and TP53(71).

4. Black bean
Black bean is a Small roughly ovoid legumes with glossy black shells, genus Phaseolus, belonging to the family Fabaceae and can bought in most grocery stores all around the year in dried and canned forms. It is believed that black bean was first domesticated growth in South America.
Water-soluble condensed tannins isolated from black beans showed inhibition against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 at 24 microM by suppressed fetal bovine serum (blood fraction remaining after the natural coagulation of blood) stimulated cell migration and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 or gelatinase A), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 or gelatinase B)(involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix), and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF(165)(regulator of angiogenesis) receptors expression(72). Phytochemical of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats, also enhanced potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in doses depending manner(73).

5. Fermented soybean
Fermented soybean made from ground soybeans, is an popular ingredient used in cuisines of East and Southeast Asia.
Chungkookjang, a Korean fermented soybean, containing high concentration of isoflavones and peptides showed to inhibit the growth of breast cancer MCF7 cells in decreased dependent on the concentration by activating TGFβ pathway in cellular processes and depressing inflammation(74).
In murine breast adenocarcinoma,  fermented soy product (FSP) showed an effectiveness in tumor containment with smallest tumor volumes. Expressed larger amounts of nitric oxide and IL-1β (regulation of immune and inflammatory responses) and exhibited larger tumor sizes(75).

6. Peanut
Peanuts is belong to the the legume related to the bean family and first cultivated in the in the Chaco region of Paraguay and Bolivia.
Lectin ( (PNA), a chemical constituent of peanut was effective in inhibiting proliferation of human breast cell lines (ZR-75.1 and 734-B)(76) and MCF-7, T 47D, HBL 100, BT 20(77). Beta-Sitosterol found in  legumes, oil seeds and unrefined plant oils such as peanut butter, pistachios and sunflower, showed to exhibit the extrinsic apoptotic programmed cell death pathway in human breast MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231(78).

7. Faxseed
Flax seed is native to the region of the eastern Mediterranean to India and also known as common flax or linseed. Flax, an erect annual plant, can grow to 1.2 m tall. The leaves are 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad.
Study of athymic mice fed with basal diet (control), or 10% FS diet, with or without TRAS (2.5mg/kg) treatment for 5 wk, showed a positive effects in reduced tumor size and increased tumor apoptosis. Dietary FS improved the function of TRAS in increased overall survival(79). In dietary flaxseed lignan or oil combined with tamoxifen showed an enhancing effect in reducing growth of estrogen receptor positive breast tumors (MCF-7) at low circulating estrogen levels by inhibiting cell proliferation, expression of genes, and proteins involved in the ER- and growth factor-mediated signaling pathways(80), with FO greatest effect in increasing apoptosis compared with TAM treatment alone(80). Lignans (a class of phytoestrogens) consumption was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk(81). In estrogen-receptor-positive (MCF-7) and estrogen-receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231) cells, Flaxseed sprouts induced apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell growth by significantly upregulated p53(Anti tumor antigen) mRNA (transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell) in both cell cancer lines(82).

Many hours have been spent, hundred studies have been read, they may be worthless, if this article can not induce some women to change their diet patterns toward plenty vegetables and fruits accompanied with healthy style of living. Vegetables and fruits in the article, indeed, showed a positive effect in inhibiting proliferation  and causing apoptosis in many breast cancer cell lines. But with expansions of GMOs into almost all food sources in production of large scale, approved by FDA and promoted by elective officials for commercial profits with lack of long term studies, organic farming are sitting in the  defendant corner waiting for the death sentence in the next super gene of GMOs cross-contamination. Will the foods in this article be the same in the future? Will they still exert their anti breast cancer effects?.....

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1) Intake of specific fruits and vegetables in relation to risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer among postmenopausal women by Fung TT, Chiuve SE, Willett WC, Hankinson SE, Hu FB, Holmes MD.(PubMed)
(2) Fruits, vegetables and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies by Aune D, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Rosenblatt DA, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Norat T.(PubMed)
(3) Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients.
Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Vena JE, Laughlin R, Brasure JR, Swanson MK, Nemoto T, Graham S.(PubMed)
(4) Life style and risk of development of breast and ovarian cancer by Pięta B, Chmaj-Wierzchowska K, Opala T.(PubMed)
(5) Epidemiological evidence for a relationship between life events, coping style, and personality factors in the development of breast cancer by Butow PN, Hiller JE, Price MA, Thackway SV, Kricker A, Tennant CC.(PubMed)
(6) Epidemiological correlates of breast cancer in South India by Babu GR, Lakshmi SB, Thiyagarajan JA.(PubMed)
(7) Dietary organic isothiocyanates are cytotoxic in human breast cancer MCF-7 and mammary epithelial MCF-12A cell lines by Tseng E, Scott-Ramsay EA, Morris ME.(PubMed)
(8) Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype by

(9) Extracts of strawberry fruits induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in Somasagara RR, Hegde M, Chiruvella KK, Musini A, Choudhary B, Raghavan SC.(PubMed)
(10) Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D.(PubMed)
(63) logical effects of green tea capsule supplementation in pre-surgery postmenopausal breast cancer patients by Yu SS, Spicer DV, Hawes D, Tseng CC, Yang CS, Pike MC, Wu AH(PubMed)
(64) Epigenetic effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer by Henning SM, Wang P, Carpenter CL, Heber D.(PubMed)
(65) Green Tea Catechins: Proposed Mechanisms of Action in Breast Cancer Focusing on The Interplay Between Survival and Apoptosis by Yiannakopoulou EC.(PubMed)
(66)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits stem-like inflammatory breast cancer cells by Mineva ND, Paulson KE, Naber SP, Yee AS, Sonenshein GE.(PubMed)
(67) Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation and migratory behaviour of triple negative breast cancer cells by Braicu C, Gherman CD, Irimie A, Berindan-Neagoe I.(PubMed)
(68) Inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms of selenium-containing tea polysaccharides on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by He N, Shi X, Zhao Y, Tian L, Wang D, Yang X.(PubMed)
(69) The effects of green tea consumption on incidence of breast cancer and recurrence of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Seely D, Mills EJ, Wu P, Verma S, Guyatt GH.(PubMed)
(70) The red wine phenolics piceatannol and myricetin act as agonists for estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells by Maggiolini M, Recchia AG, Bonofiglio D, Catalano S, Vivacqua A, Carpino A, Rago V, Rossi R, Andò S.(PubMed)
(71) Catechin hydrate suppresses MCF-7 proliferation through TP53/Caspase-mediated apoptosis. by Alshatwi AA.(PubMed)
(72) Inhibition of Caco-2 colon, MCF-7 and Hs578T breast, and DU 145 prostatic cancer cell proliferation by water-soluble black bean condensed tannins by Bawadi HA, Bansode RR, Trappey A 2nd, Truax RE, Losso JN.(PubMed)
(73) Phytochemicals of black bean seed coats: isolation, structure elucidation, and their antiproliferative and antioxidative activities by Dong M, He X, Liu RH.(PubMed)
(74) Inflammation-related signaling pathways implicating TGFβ are revealed in the expression profiling of MCF7 cell treated with fermented soybean, chungkookjang by Hwang JS, Yoo HJ, Song HJ, Kim KK, Chun YJ, Matsui T, Kim HB.(PubMed)
(75) A soy-based product fermented by Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus helveticus inhibits the development of murine breast adenocarcinoma by Kinouchi FL, Maia DC, de Abreu Ribeiro LC, Placeres MC, de Valdez GF, Colombo LL, Rossi EA, Carlos IZ.(PubMed)
(76) Peanut agglutinin inhibits proliferation of cultured breast cancer cells by Marth C, Daxenbichler G.(PubMed)
(77) The influence of dietary lectins on the cell proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines in vitro by Valentiner U, Fabian S, Schumacher U, Leathem AJ.(PubMed)
(78) beta-Sitosterol activates Fas signaling in human breast cancer cells by Awad AB, Chinnam M, Fink CS, Bradford PG.(PubMed)
(79) Dietary flaxseed-trastuzumab interactive effects on the growth of HER2-overexpressing human breast tumors (BT-474) by Mason JK, Fu MH, Chen J, Yu Z, Thompson LU.(PubMed)
(80) Dietary flaxseed lignan or oil combined with tamoxifen treatment affects MCF-7 tumor growth through estrogen receptor- and growth factor-signaling pathways by Saggar JK, Chen J, Corey P, Thompson LU.(PubMed)
(81)Consumption of flaxseed, a rich source of lignans, is associated with reduced breast cancer risk by Lowcock EC, Cotterchio M, Boucher BA.(PubMed